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be BlacF? Bool? of Carmartben: 

What does it contain ? Is it prose or verse ? Tell 
us all about it.' Of such a nature are the questions and 
the request commonly addressed to the writer. What 
follows, therefore, is an attempt to satisfy this natural 
and reasonable curiosity on the part of the many, 
rather than a critical analysis addressed to the few. 
The latter work can be better performed by those who 
live within reach of great libraries, and of fellow- 
workers in divers branches of research. A solitary man, 
living in exile among mountains, remote from the centres 
of learning, must be content with inviting his readers to 
the nearest height, whereon he may show them the 
nature of the country, — perhaps name one or two of 
the more salient features, and gather, as he goes, a 
few flowerets by the wayside. 

Teg yd g4n yr adaren ar berwyS bren. I07'9 
Fair the birdie sings on the fragrant bough. 
Yes, fair the day, and fair the spot, and fair his lot who 
listens. What a wealth of suggestion is there in that 
word fair, in the forefront of the poem, while the tuneful 
adaren brings a whole world of blossom and new life 
before our vision, and fills our nostrils with the spring. 



It is held to be the law of all literatures that they 
must begin with verse, before they go on to prose. The 
Black Book of Carmarthen is no exception to the 
rule. It was written by men of Deheubarth, whose 
accent may still be heard in the neighbourhood of its 
origin, the Priory of St. John's, founded for Black 
Canons about the year 1148, at the east end of the 
town of Carmarthen. The Priory itself is in the last 
stages of decay; the very names of those who lived 
within its walls can only be traced now in the Book of 
Fate ; and of the work they did with their hands, there 
remains but the fragment which makes up the text of 
this booklet, which was written during the reigns of 
Henry II., and his sons. Some of the compositions, 
however, belong to earlier ages. The Dialogues must 
be placed in this class, but before we examine them, it 
will be convenient to deal with the contents of our 
text, not in the sequence of the poems in the manu- 
script, but according to the four main divisions of 
the .subject matter, to wit: Mythology, Theology, 
History, and Literature. In the evolution of human 
thought and beliefs, we must not look for definite 
frontier-lines, and we do not find them in the Black 
Book of Carmarthen. Its theology is not infrequently 
merged in the older mythology, as is only natural : the 
younger is grafted on the older, which ever supplies 
the sap, and mothers the growth that overshadows it. 
Still, for the purpose of our present examination the 
above divisions are sufficiently distinctive, and they 
will be followed in the order named. 

viii B.B.c. 

The Dialogues are full of mythological and semi- 
historical allusions, and for that reason are often very 
obscure to the modern mind. The language offers 
difficulties, but wherever the subject is understood the 
words yield their meaning readily. The real difficulty 
lies in the subject itself, as a rule. The first poem in 
in the book, the dialogue between MyrSitt and Taliessin, 
is an illustration in point. The subject is the Battle 
of ArvderyS, in which Maelgwn and his men took, 
apparently, a decisive part: other names are singled 
out for special mention to posterity, but the facts of 
their lives are unknown, and they have for their epitaph : 
'The path of Glory leads but to the grave.' The 
chronicler is too brief: '573 Annus. Bellum Armterid,' 
and the curtain falls. Our text however adds : 

Seith ugein haelon Seven score generosi 

aethan yngwllon went into the shades 

ynghoed CelySon. 6'9 in CelySon wood. 

These lines remind us of the words of Procopius, a 

Greek writer of the sixth century : ' In the island of 

Britain men of ancient time built a long wall .... 

soil and men are not alike on both sides.' On one side 

of the wall the air is wholesome, and the seasons 

temperate. Man and beast, corn, tree and fruit, all 

flourish. On the other side 'all is different.' Vipers 

and all kinds of wild beasts 'infect the place, and what 

is most strange, the natives affirm that if any one 

passing the wall should proceed to the other side, he 

I 'Annates Cambrie.' A later MS. adds: [inter filios Elifer et Guen- 
doleu fllium Keidiau; in quo bello Guendoleu cecidit: Merlinus insanus 
effectus est.] Cp. Seith meib Eliffer. B.B.C., 5-8 

B.B.C. ix 


^ towards the north : when he has reached his destination, 
J he takes counsel of Gwyn and Gwythyr.'7 At another 

time these two had a serious quarrel over CreiSilad,8 

'the most majestic of the maids of the island of 

Britain.' 9 Gwyn had in fact run away with her on 

the very day of her introduction to the home of 

Gwythyr, who in hot haste gathered a host, and sought 

to rescue his lady. Gwyn however promptly beat him, 

and put his chief followers in prison. He even put 

one of them to death, extracted his heart, and caused 

the dead man's son to eat it. When Arthur heard of 

this he again ' comes as far as the north' ; he summons 

Gwyn before him, releases the prisoners, and establishes 

a truce between the two lovers. He also restores 

CreiSilad to her father's home, there to live apart 

from Gwyn and Gwythyr, whom he sentences to fight 

each other every Kalends of May, till one or other 

prevails. He who wins, on this their 'doom's day,' 

takes the maid. Having thus settled the quarrel 

Arthur goes to ILydaw. '° 

In another connection it is said that 'God had 

endowed Gwyn with the activity of the demons of 

Annwn, before destroying his life;" that he could not 

be spared from his own place.' But in case he could be 

spared he must be mounted on Ebony, the horse of Moro 

refuse of all sorts, where it was burnt. At one end of it was Tophet where 
infant sacrifice to the fire-gods took place. This is the Gehenna of the New 
Testament. The Rabbins call it the " door of hell." 5S iR.B. Mai., 141-28. 

SCreurdilad in our text. She was the daughter ol Llud and appears in 
English as Cordelia, the daughter of King Lear. 5K 9 R.B. Mab., ii3'2. 

^°R.B. Mai., 134; ii3's. JK wib. I24'24. The above rendering differs 
from preceding versions. The theology here is not Pagan but Pauline : The 
la^ enemy that shall be destroyed is death, i Corinthians xv'26. 

xii B.B.C. 

0rwySawg,'2 before he could take part in the hunt of 
the Boar Trwyth.13 In the account of the hunt when the . 
boar was lost between the mouth of the Towy and the 
Taw6, we are told that Arthur summoned Gwyn to 
him, and asked if he knew anything of the missing 
Trwyth.14 This is the one instance in the Kulhwch, 
where Gwyn appears in the east, on the borders of the 
Severn Sea,"* which girdles Cower, another region 
associated with the spirit world, which extended 
beyond and included the ancient territory of Dyved, 
the Annwn of the Mabinogi of Pwyll. Gwladyr hud, 
the land of enchantment was also in Dyved, and Gwyn 
has told us that he is called ' the enchanter.' 

Thus we see that one set of documents places the 
spirit world in the north, and another in the south. 
What is the explanation, if any ? In the sixth century 
the several branches of the Keltic family in Britain 
occupied districts so widely separated as Strathclyde 
in the north, the country west of the Severn and the 
Dee, ^5 and the south-west corner of England. Every 
branch had its own region of the departed spirits. 
When KuneSa and his Strathclyde followers moved 
south, and settled in Wales, they brought their theology 
with them. Whenever, therefore, Annwn is placed in 
the north it is safe to attribute the authorship to a 
descendant of the Strathclyde Britons. By degrees, 
as the northern immigrants became absorbed in the 

n Moro o^ruedauc is the MS. reading. I suggest that we read : Moro 
orwySawg, i.e. Moro/fe^room. ^ nR.B. Mab., 12^-27. 5S i4«., 139-8. 

15 The Kelts occupied also the western coast from the Solway to the Dee. 
Welsh place-names like Penwortham, near Preston, survive still. 

B.B.C. ^iii 


southern inhabitants, Keltic theology got mixed, as 
theologies are apt to do, and conflicting allusions meet 
us more and more, as our authorities grow later and 
later, till we are forced at last to cry out with the 
faithful : credo, quia itnpossibile est. 

Of the hound Dormarch '^ we have a pictorial repre- 
sentation at the foot of page 97. Cerberus was a 
bodiless three-headed monster, with a serpent's tail. 
Dormarch differs in having two front legs, and but one 
head. His body, however, is attenuated into a sort of 
forked tail, terminating in fan-like ends. An animal 
of this description was not adapted to run along the 
ground, and our text informs us that he moved ar wybir, 
i.e. rode on the clouds which haunt mountain-tops.'7 

16 The form and meaning of the dog's name are uncertain. The scribe 
wrote Dormarch twice, but the r has been erased, probably by a later hand. 
Prof. Rhys suggests Dor-mar/h, which he interprets as ' Death's door." 
Marth, however, occurs in other places where the sense ' death ' is impossible. 
Mach, the amended syllable, means 'a bail, a surety.' 

Welsh tradition seems to follow the Latin Cerberus, while early Christian 
art borrows its symbols from Jonah and the whale. In the tenth 
century Caedmon MS., Infernus is depicted by the bodiless open-mouth of a 
marine monster, with two tusks ; the Devil lies on his back across this 
mouth, with his neck chained to the tusk of the lower jaw, and his clawed 
hands to that of the upper. In a fresco, uncovered some years ago, in 
Coombe Church, Oxfordshire, 'the jaws of death' resemble the gaping 
mouth of the sperm whale. This reminded me of the expression ymwlch 
savan ki, in the opening of the dog's jaw, a phrase current in my native 
place, forty years ago, when speaking of the dying. When a dog uttered a 
dismal cry, half-howl half-whine, at dead of night, it was held to prognosti- 
cate death in the neighbourhood. 

17 The word wybir according to Prof. Rhys, is merely the Welsh form of 
the Latin vapor. This vapour is not diffused mist, but a condensed floating 
white cloud, which is called Nubtn in S. Cardiganshire. In cold weather, 
this NuSen is said ' to claw one's vitals : ' Mar nuben yn cravangu yn 
ymrest i.' Whether the word is a derivative of Nu8, or is unconnected with 
it, I leave others to decide. It is enough for our present purpose to point 
out that this nuSen serves as a garment for Gwyn, and is the vehicle in 
which the hound is said to move. 

xiv ^^•^- 


We find a remarkable survival of this tradition in 1813. 
As Thomas Andrew was coming towards home one night, with 
some persons with him, he heard, as he thought, the sound of wyblr 
hunting : he was afraid it was some person hunting the sheep, so 
he hastened on to meet and hinder them : he heard them coming 
towards him, though he saw them not : when they came near him 
their voices were but small, but increasing as they went from him : 
. . . whereby he knew they were what are called cwn wybir, but 
in the inward part of Wales cwn annwn. I have heard say that 
these Spiritual Hunting Dogs have been heard to pass by the eves 
of several houses before the death of some one in the family.'^ 

An acquaintance of mine, a man perfectly firm to tell the truth, 
being out at night heard a hunting in the air, and as if they 
overtook something which they hunted after, and befng overtaken 
made a miserable cry among them, and seemed to escape ; but 
overtaken again, made the same dismal cry ; and again escaped.'* 
Before the light of the Gospel prevailed, there were in Car- 
marthenshire and elsewhere often heard before burials what by 
some were called Cwn Annwn ; by others Cwn bendith y Mamineu 
(Dogs of the Fairies) ; and by some Cwn wybir. The nearer they 
were . . . the less their voice was, like that of small beagles ; and 
the farther the louder : and sometimes like the voice of a great 
hound sounding among them .... a deep hollew voice."' 

[As] Mr. D. W., of Pembrokeshire, a man far from superstition, 
was travelling by himself through a field, called the Cot-moor, 
where two stones are set up, called the Devil's Nags, at some 
distance from each other, where evil spirits are said to haunt and 
trouble passengers, he was thrown over the hedge, and was never 
well afterwards. Mr. W. went with a strong fighting mastiff with 
him ; but suddenly he saw another mastiff dog coming towards 
him. He thought to set his own dog at it, but his dog seemed to 
be much frightened, and would not go near it. Mr. W. then 
stooped down to take up a stone, thinking to throw at it ; but 
suddenly there came a fire round it, so that he could percieve it 
had a white tail and a white snip down his nose, and saw his teeth 
grinning at him ; he then knew it was one of the Infernal Dogs.=° 

HA relation of the ' Apparition of Spirits ' in the County of Monmouth and 
the Principality of Wales, by the late Rev. Edmund Jones of the Tranch. 
(Newport, 1813). p. 38-9. i9((5. p. 82. 20 ji. p. 70-71. 5(^« ' Ps. xxii'ao.' 

^ XV 


In the third dialogue two horsemen meet; the one, 
with his white dogs and loud horns, is going to Dinas; the 
other, who is riding to Aber, is the first to speak : 

I do not know you, though I have seen you before. 

It is true you have not seen me daily. You look like a prosperous 
man : how far are you going, and from where are you coming ? 

I come from Caer Seon, from fighting with Jews, Ihewon : I go 
to the Caer of Lieu and Gwydion. 

Go rather along with me to Dinas ; I will give you purified"' mead 
and gold. Come to my dale, and I will give you sparkling wine. 

I really do not know the man who repeatedly invites me to his 
home, and withal speaks so fair and pleasant. 

My name is Ugnach, the son of Mydno. 

Ugnach ! blessings on thy GorseS. Grace and honour be thine. 
And I am Taliessin. I will repay thee thy hospitality. 

Taliessin, chief of men, i^e challenger in the conflict of song, 
abide here till Wednesday. 

Ugnach ! you are most hospitable. Grace be yours in the 
kingdom of the Most High ; blame me not ; I cannot stay. 101-2. 
That is the sense of the poem, which is full of 
suggestive matter. Space, however, forbids more than a 
few passing remarks. The story of Taliessin contending 
with the bards in the court of Maelgwn GwyneS is known 
to all readers of Lady Charlotte Guest's Mabinogion." 
We have clearly a reference to the same tradition here, 
in the kerZ gyvergyr''^ of our text, where Taliessin ' chief 
of bards,' appears as ' chief of men.' Thus the xvith cen- 
tury Hams" is confirmed by our xiith century manuscript, 
which adds a further particular in its reference to the 
conflict with Jews, — a conflict not mentioned elsewhere, 
for the good reason that the text is corrupt. Copyists were 
careless: they misread their originals, and not infrequently 

31 1 read 'ry phe!llas' = strained, by being passed through a coarse cloth. 
22 Vol. iii., pages 321 — 389 contain Hanes Taliessin. 58 23 B.B.C., I02'ii. 

xvi ^•^•^- 

made deliberate alterations.24 Whenever, therefore, a 
word occurs wildly out of harmony with the context, 
it is necessary to examine it carefully. Ihewon is such a 
word here. It is wholly foreign to the tradition em- 
bodied in the poem, which requires cerhorion'^. Read : 
Ban Seuav o Gaer Siion, I come from Caer Seon, 
O ymlad a cheriorion; From contesting with the bards^^: 

Y8 av Gaer Leu a Gwydion. I go to Caer Leu a Gwydion. 
How then came ' ISewon ' to be foisted into the text ? 
Quite naturally. The scribe was, as proved by his 
orthography, a native of Carmarthen, or of the near 
neighbourhood of its Priory. He was therefore un- 
likely to know that ' Caer Seon ' was an actual place, 
near the modern town of Carnarvon.^^ And if, in the 
nineteenth century, Seon could only suggest ^ Zion, or 
Jerusalem ' to Skene,^^ how much more was it likely to 
be the case with a man engaged in copying the poem 
at the very time the Crusades were preached. Under 
the circumstances it was quite natural that the ' fight ' 

24 See Paleographical Note 46 '2 

^S Kertorion occurs six times, — see Index. That it is the right word here 
is further supported by a poem on the subject in Panton MS. 37: 'A phan 
5el yr amrysson, YngwyS y Teyrnon, A gwys ir cerSorion, Am gerS gywir 
gysson, Yn Uys meibon Deuon, YnghyueS Gwion.' The last line can not 
be right. Cp. Hanes Taliessin, p. 335. 

26The geography of the poem is on the sea-board lying between Carnarvon 
and Clynog. There is a Dinas on the banks of the Gwrvei, near y Bont 
NewyS in the parish of Llan Wnda, on the road from Caer Seon in Arvon to 
Dinas Dinlleu, which suggests itself as the Caer Leu a Gwydion. But we 
must not overlook another Dinas on the banks of the Llyvni, nor the old 
encampment, a quarter of a mile distant, on Lleuer Farm beyond Bryn 
Gwydion, on the left of the road to Clynog. Ugnach remains as unknown 
to us as he was to Taliessin when first he met him ; there is a GorseS still, 
however, in the parish of Llan Dwrog. Cp. ' Mi a fum ynghaer Wydion, 
ger gorseS Deon.' Cp. 'Deon' with 'Deuon' of note 25: note also 'Mia 
fum yn Uys Don cyn geni Gwydion.' See Hanes Taliessin. p. 339. 

27 Four Ancient Books of Wales, vol. ii., p. 352. 

B.B.C. xvii 




should be with iZewon. The word had the same number 
of syllables as kerhorion, and rhymed just as well ; it gave 
besides a touch of life and actuality to the composition. 

In the fourth dialogue Taliessin salutes apparently 
his father confessor, Yscolan by name, whose first 
remark is : ' Woe to him who angers a Gwledig if he 
please him not' Taliessin relates how he had burnt 
a church, done a certain injury to a school, and de- 
stroyed a roll of religious music.''^ Consequently his 
'penance and affliction were heavy. For a full year I 
was placed in a coracle"' on the pole of a weir. 
Consider my suffering from sea worms. If I had 
known what I know I should not have done what I did.' 
Yscolan observes : ' Creator of all things, thy treasures 
are most plenteous, Forgive me my falsehood, He who 
betrayed thee has deceived me too.' 817-9 

On page 94 we have a fifth dialogue, full of Keltic 
mythology, between Arthur and Glewlwyd Gavaelvawr. 

Who is the porter? Glewlwyd Gavaelvawr. 

Who is the man who asks ? Arthur and Kay the blessed. 

Who go with you ? The best men in the world. 

To my house you will not come, unless you can deliver [them]. 

I shall deliver them, and you will see it. 

Then follows a monologue on the part of Arthur, 
who tells the tale of Kay's heroic deeds.3° 

28 For 'a llyuir xod y vo/i' 8i'6, I propose to read: 'a Uyvyr ro/ i vo/i.' 
■x)ymangor ar bawl gored, Si'ii. Ban-gor=' Xhe upper row of rods, 
thicker than the rest, in a wattle fence.' Silvan Evans. Taliessin is placed 
in, not on ('ar') a ban-gor, but whether in a coracle, or in some other kind of 
wattle-frame is not clear, except that it is ' on a pole.' Perhaps a sort of 
lacustrine dwelling is meant. 

30 The matter of this poem, which is incomplete, is found in fuller detail 
in the Romance of Kulhwch and Olwen. We shall return to the subject in 
the fox\hcommg editio princeps of The While Book Matinogion. 

xviii B.B.C. 



There are a good many poems of the religious, 
rather than of the theological order. These reflect j 
their monastic origin, just as the modern aivdl of the 
chaired bard 3" reflects his Sunday sermons. It matters 
little what the subject of the awdl may be, the 
treatment is nearly always didactic. Quite recently 
King Arthur and his knights were converted by the 
EisteSvodic muse into respectable chapel-goers, and 
seated with the elders under the pulpit.^" Our bards, 
while remembering that there is no antagonism between 
religion and art, should realize that literature has 
nothing in common with theology, and that theology 
is not religion. The sense of awe, of reverence, of 
love, is the inspiration of art and of the religious life, 
which ever tend to bind men together in all that is 
worthy and great. On the other hand, theology is 
at best, nothing but a speculative attempt to make 
intelligible this sense which is in the blood of all ; 
while ordinarily it is a blind tradition, bankrupt in 
intelligence, but with a vast capacity for creating 
divisions and all uncharitableness. It is this traditional 
theology which chokes the life of modern Welsh 
literature, and makes it so inane. Happily, this has 
not always been the case. When the Black Book of 
Carmarthen was written the Church was one. Appar- 
ently it had no theologians to divide the energies and 
embitter the relations of men. Its priesthood laid 

31 The winner of the chief prize at the EisteSvod is, with hardly an 
exception, always a cleric. 3$ 32 Words to this effect were uttered on the 
platform of the National EisteSvod by its most competent adjudicator. 

B.B.C. xix 



Stress on the worship of God, a clean life, church 
observance, and church support. First comes worship : 
GogoneSawc arglwyj, hanpych gwell ! 
ath vendicco di eglwys a changell. 35T 
Glorious God, we hail Thee ! Let church and chancel praise Thee. 
In this Benedicite omnia opera of the Welsh Catholic 
Church faith is exultant Plain and precipice, fish and 
beast, birds and bees, air and sky, the fountains of 
the deep and of the firmament, night and day, sun, 
moon and stars, Abraham, Moses and Aaron, letters, 
literature and man, the living and the dead, time and 
eternity — all bless the Lord. Seepages 35-36. 

Cyntav gair a Jywedav, Ever the first thing I say, 

Y bore ban gyvodav : When I rise at break of day : 

Croes Crist yn wise am danav. The Cross of Christ I'll wear alway. 
Gwiscav am danav yn berth, I will wear it seemly well, 
Nis credav goel can nid certh : Tis to me no fabled spell : 
Y gwT ym crewys am nerth. In my Maker do I dwelL %r■l-^ 

And again : ' I seek the protection of God, certain is 
his gift, and his gifted am I.' 78-1 Nowhere is there 
doubt or uncertainty; nowhere perplexity, sadness or 
despair. The outlook is hopeful, bright and sunny. 
Pain and sorrow may cast shadows on life's highway, 
but no gloom mantles the brow, no cant affects the 
voice. It is a sin to whine and be glum, because the 

The mighty God . . . created the light of gladness. 

Kyvoethog Dduw ... a beris Ileuver llawenyJ. 88'4 

The ethical teaching of the text is felt throughout, 
but it is nowhere agressively preached. We are urged 
to ' Respect the law of the maker of heaven,' 227, for 

The perfect God did not create us 

To work foolishness, nor deceit, nor oppression. 86' 10 
Nid er jm ciewjs Dews diffleis, £r gmeotbor ambwyli, na tfawyll, na thiais. 


The only safety lies in doing no wrong, because ' all im- 
purity must be winnowed' 84-12. 'Yea, woe unto thee . . if 
thou be not delivered from the evil thou hast done.' 19-5 
Ymryn, ynhyno, yn ynysseS mor, 
Ymhob fford yS elher, 
Rhag Crist gwyn nid oes ynialeS. 33" 1 1 
' Nor mountains, nor valleys, nor isles of the sea, — no, 
nor all the paths which men make in the wilderness can 
provide an escape from the pure eye of Christ,' the 
judge of the quick and the dead. Hence the prayer for 
reconciliation, for a timely reformation and reparation : 
Teymvron, let us make peace, — deny me not ; 
Let us set right the wrong we have done, 
Before I go beneath the sod, to my green grave, 
Into the darkness, without Hght to my tumulus, 
Into my narrow abode, to my destiny, to my rest. 30*4 
There is one reference, 41 i, to expiatory sacrifice, but 
nowhere a hint of purgatory, nor of that 'other place'-'* 
to which warm-hearted men consign those who are too 
honest to profess belief in every tradition of the past. 
The nobler ' faith is centred everywhere, nor cares to fix 
itself to form.' It is the wrong-doing, not the wrong- 
thinking which darkens the horizon in the West. The 
church of the twelfth century^^ thought with Emerson 
that 'the deed and not the creed . . . helps us in our 
utmost need.' It therefore busied itself with the in- 
justice of man to man. A vu treis tranghyssant. 2 15 
'The oppressors have perished,' have, seemingly, been 
blotted out of the book of life. There is poetical 
justice in this doctrine. Men who use the gift of life, 

34See however, 25'4-6. It is not the heretics, but the unclean people, 
pobloet an-tan, who have a fiery experience of some kind. 5K 35 The creed 
of the church is broadly set forth on pp. 84-5. 



to make the lives of others a burden to them, do not 
^*'" deserve to have that gift renewed. There is another 
class of men: Direid nev, direid daear, 70-4. Wastrels 
of heaven, wastrels of earth. These are incapable of 
change and growth, unemployed and unemployable here, 
and therefore condemned to linger on for ever in the 
corridors of time, leading a useless, aimless, existence.^* 
Not so the fate of the industrious. Dyn dyval i ffawd 
Ni ervill gospawd, i8-ii. 'The man of diligent nature 
will receive no punishment': he is 'the good and faithful 
servant' who has 'worked out his own salvation.' He 
hears, not the ecclesiastic's Well-believed, but his Master's 
Well-done, and he enters into the joy of the Lord. 

Kyvoethog Dduw a ve8 

8yn 'n i Seheu vucheS. 25"2 
'The mighty God owns the man whose hfe is in the right.' 

Still,those who neglect church observances are reproached: 
Ni cheuntosti bader, Na phylgeint na gosper. 2r8. 
Ni phercheisti greireu, Na Hoc, na llanneu. 22'4. 

Thou hast not sung a Paternoster, nor Prime, nor Evensong . . . 

Thou hast not reverenced relics, nor altar, nor churches . . . 

However, ' By rising at dawn, waking at midnight, and imploring 

the saints, every Christian obtains forgiveness.' 85'3 

And yet, mark the questions and the threat addressed 
to the man who has not endowed the church. 
Pa roSeisti oth reuveS What didst thou give of thy store 
Kyn cywes argel ? Before thy association with the grave ? 

Pa roSeisti oth olud What didst thou give of thy gold 

Kyn mwyll moll mud ? Before the silence of dissolution ? 20'6. 
Gwae a grawn mawr vertheS, Woe to whoso gathers treasure, 
Ac onys gwaSawl y RieS. If he endow not his Lord. 3r2-4 

36 This is evidently an old idea. Cp. the following lines from Sappho : 
Doomed o'er that dreary realm alone To go, shunn'd by the gentler shades, 
Nor friend shall soothe, nor parent own The Child of Sloth. Trans, by R. B. 

xxii ^•^•'-• 


Among the latest compositions of the Black Book 
of Carmarthen are the Bedweni, the Avalleneu and the 
Hoianeu. All three poems have the same device of re- 
peating a ' catch-phrase ' at the beginning of every verse. 
These phrases are possibly an echo of some notorious 
event." For instance, the murderers of Thomas-a-Becket 
were seen armed under an apple tree.'^ Hence, perhaps, 
it is that Avallen beren bir y changeu shadows so many 
tragic tales. To clothe these tales would be to write 
the Welsh history of half a century and more, which, 
were the writer competent, could. not be done in a 
a general introduction. Some verses contain, besides, a 
background of allusion to a remoter past, and yield 
their secret with much reserve. All that is practical, 
therefore, is to glance at some of the more open 
secrets. And first come the verses of the Birch-tree in 
the valley of the Wye,^' on Pymlumon, and in Din- 
vythwy.''" They deal with incidents in the life of 
Cadwaladr, the son of Griffith ap Kynan who, with 
his brother Owein, harried the Norman parasites with 
persistence and success. ' Blessed is the Birch-tree on 
Pymlumon' when it looks down, in 1136, on Rhyd 

37 Compare the recent public incident — On the Knee. 

38 F. York Powell's History of England, p. 97, (1885). 

39Syrth i chengeu — bob un, bob dwy, 47'2. Elvel and MaelenyS fell, 
both a second time, in 1143. See Bruts, 3i2'7. Jg The young men, gweison 
^/irijon, of 475 are Kadwaladr and Owein. 5K Myneich . . . yn varchogion. 
Gr. ap Kynan became a monk. See Bruts, 3io'24. 

40 V vedwen yngwarthav Din Vythwy A wybyS ban vo y gad jrn Ardud- 
wy, 47"ti. Howe! ap O. GwyneS returned from the sacking of Gwis Castle, 
in 1 146, to besiege his uncle, Kadwaladr, in his castle in Kynvael in Ar- 
dudwy. His direct route would be through Bwlch y Vedwen, the Pass of 
the Birch tree, which lies to the east of Din\zs\ Vowlwy. See Bruts, 314-13. 

^ xxiii 


Vochnwy, the ferry across the Dyvi, and sees the 
mailed Normans and their alh'es vanquished, — some 
killed, some drowned, and the remnant dispersed.'-" 
A .. ' The fragrant Apple-tree verses open with a reference 
-eneu to ' very gory blades, which cause rejoicing in England.' 
The event which best illustrates this is the signal 
defeat and death of the formidable prince, Rhys ab 
Tewdwr, in 1090. But the Brut does not locate the 
place 'in Breconshire' where this happened. It only 
mentions Bachwy once, where we are told that the 
King's son and son in law, Robert and Alexander, 
'proceeded against the chief of Bachwy.' This date 
is too late. We know, however, that Elvel fell into 
the hands of Robert of Belesme, the lord of Brecon, 
and that the 'valley of Machawy' or Bachwy is in 
Elvel. It lies between Pain's Castle and the Castle of 
the Black Rock ; the probability is great that more 
than one battle was fought in the valley which divides 
these two castles. Where the chronicler is vague we 
should expect the bard of the house of Dinevor to be 
precise. The bard is also clearly antithetical. To-day 
England is full of rejoicing, but to-morrow the Kymry 
will raise the shout of triumph. ' The Saxons will be 
slaughtered by the ashen spears, and their sundered 
heads will serve as balls to play with. A youth will 
arise at the head of the South.' This youth is Griffith, 
the young son of the fallen Rhys ap Tewdwr. He 

41 See Bruts, 309-ro. Among other historical references are : 
47*16 Arbenigawl Men = Kadwaladr. See p. xxvii, 2-6 below. 
48'! G'mi^gentes nigrae, i.e. Danes. They are called Gennanwyr in the 
Bruts, 3ii'32-3, where the reference in the text is explained. Germanwyr 
came apparently from ' Llwch Gannon' in Ireland. See Bruts 326'i2. 

xxiv B.B.C. 

returns from his exile in Ireland in 1112. For about 
two years he lives quietly among his friends and 
relatives, growing in favour every day in his father's 
old territory. This makes the King apprehensive, and 
the voice of slander poisons his mind against young 
Griffith, who, upon hearing of it, seeks and obtains the 
protection of Griffith ap Kynan. Henry promptly 
demands the fugitive to be sent to him alive; if that 
be not possible, then let him ' be slain, and his head ' 
sent to England. Griffith makes good his escape, & 
reaches the sanctuary of the church at Aber Daron ; 
he flees thence by water to Ystrat Towy, where the 
people flock to his standard. Griffith at once takes 
the offensive and, with varying success, attacks one 
castle after another in the counties of Carmarthen and 
Pembroke. He then crosses the Teivi, and inflicts dire 
punishment on the garrison at Blaen Forth. While 
returning to his base in ILan Goedmor parish, near 
Cardigan, he meets the Saxons in force near Crug 
Mawr, and practically annihilates them. In the intoxi- 
cation of victory it is remembered that the King had 
demanded the head of the triumphant leader : small 
wonder then if the Welsh warriors cut off the heads 
of the Saxon slain, tossing them to and fro as so many 
' balls,' with some grim jest, such as — 'This for the King, 
and this ' ! English rulers delighted to practise such 
barbarism on the bodies of Welsh princes, and it is 
only natural that the bad example should be followed. 
There is no reason to doubt that the bard is a faithful 
histo/ian in this particular. See Bruts, pages 294-96, 298. 





The verses beginning Hoian o Barchellan, Hush-a-bye 
Piggie, are purely narrative. The order, in which they 
are written in the manuscript, is not the order of the 
events chronicled, which range between 1135 and 1215, 
except 52-9-14, which refers to the success of the Kymry 
' as far as Aber Taradr.' A place of that name, some 
miles from Acornbury in the county of Hereford, was 
'laid waste' by the Welsh in 1055. There flourished 
about that time RhySerch''^ 'ap Caradog in Deheubarth, 
and ILywelyn ap Cadwgan in Gwyne8.' Bruts, 268-9. 

The next verse, in the order of time, is 587-16. This 
alludes to the devastating expeditions of 1135-36, made 
south of the Dyvi by Owein GwyneS, and his brother 
Cadwaladr, sons of Griffith ap Kynan. Later, Owein 
destroyed the castles belonging to his brother, who, 
fearing the loss of everthing, summoned the Northmen, 
i.e. the Danes, from Dublin to succour him. Before 
however a blow had been struck, the followers of the 
two princes, deu briodawr,*^ intervened. ' The brothers 
met in conference, and made peace, — a peace worthy of 
the plaudits of Kymry's armed forces, because it pre- 
vented lawlessness and suffering, hosting and thefts.''*'' 

Owein figures again at 6o'i-6, where we have a 
summary of Henry H.'s incursion into Wales in 1156. 
The Coed llwyvein refer to the dangerous pass of Euloe 
Wood, near Hawarden, and the narrow defile of Con- 
sillt Wood, near Flint Castle, either or both.'*' The 
English forces were severely punished, in the one and 

42 The text always adds hael, but everywhere the metre demands its omission. 

43 VoT Kynan Kadwaladir, read; Owein, Kadwaladir. *'Wyron yswein.' 
See j5ra/i, 311 28-29. 5K 44 /i. , pp. 309-312. JK 45 See 5ra<j pages 318-19. 

xxvi B.B.C. 

the other. The English fleet also suffered heavily at the 
hands of the men of Mon. When peace was established 
between the opponents, Cadwaladr, who had obtained 
possession of Anglesey in 1151, but had soon after fled 
to England, was re-established in his island, and 'the 
Saxons disappeared from the territories of Britain.' ■ 

We meet with the English King later at 54-1-10. In 
consequence of Richard Strongbow's conquest of Ire- 
land, the 'fifth King from Normandy' visits the 
unhappy isle. On his way thither he makes a pilgrimage 
to the shrine of St. David on Michaelmas day, 1172.' 
' And I prophesy that trouble will come from the 
quarrels of father and son : the country will know it' 
There is a second prophesy at 62-12-16. 'After Henry, 
the King who is no king, a troublesome world there will 
be.' This brenhin na vrenhin is Henry II.'s son Henry, 
who was crowned king at Westminster in 1 170, and again 
at Winchester in 1 1 7 2. No power, however, accompanied 
the title, nor even a worthy allowance of funds — 
nothing but the empty name accurately defined by our 
poet. All readers of history know the conflicts between 
father and son in 1173-74, and again, after Henry's death, 
between the father and Richard. See Bruts, 328-29. 

The Youngster with the great arm, y Bychan breichvras 
of 62-1, answers to Meredith ap Griffith, who proved 
himself so skilled a leader against the sudden attack of 
Carmarthen Castle by the Norman and Flemish settlers 
of Pembrokeshire in 1145. Though young in years, 
'■kynn bei bychan y oet,' he matched himself successfully 
in personal combat against tried veterans, and heartened 

B.B.C. xxvii 



his followers to the degree of enthusiasm. When the 
enemy, lead by the sons of Gerald ( ? 'the two Judases in 
their land-hunger') perceived how few men were inside 
the castle, they scaled the walls. Meredith, having 
permitted this, promptly precipitated the ladders, as well 
as> those who had mounted them, into the ditch below. 
Many were the slain, and swift the flight of those who 
made good their escape. See Bruts, 313-1-23. 

In the north we meet with Wales's greatest general, 
ILywelyn ap Jorwerth, 'summoning the other princes, 
who were his kinsmen, to arm and make war upon 
Gwenwynwyn, the prince of Powys.' This took place 
in 1202. The words of our text, S7'3-4, are; 'There 
will come ... a day of wrath between the prince of 
Powys and the clan of GwyneS.' See Bruts, 34323. 

Six years later, we find the Earl of Chester pitching 
his tents in the land of the Etheling, i.e. y Berveh-wlad, 
and building Dyganwy. And in 12 10 King John 
follows a similar route in pursuit of ILywelyn, who has 
fled to the fastness of Snowdon. Baffled and angry the 
King orders the burning of Bangor, thus incurring the 
wrath of Deiniol, its patron saint. See Bruts, 345-47. 

We close with the year 1215, when 'ILywelyn and 
the Welsh princes generally collect in a vast host at 
Carmarthen.' Among them are Rhys & Owein ap Griffith 
the two whelps, deu keneu, who share the government of 
their common territory. The castles of SenghenyS, Kid- 
weli, Carmarthen, ILan Stephan, St. Clare, Laugharne, 
Fishguard, Cardigan and Kilgerran, were taken, and the 
Saxon slain in the 'confluences of war,' 57-8. See Bru/s,3S4- 



It is a common assumption that there is nothing 
worthy of the name of Literature in the Black Book 
of Carmarthen,— nothingf that is intelligible, or of in- 
terest to any one who is not a pedant, or a philologist. 
No assumption could be farther removed from the fact, 
unless by literature be meant the Drama. The Welsh 
muse has, at no period, been dramatic, because the 
Welsh pulpit has enlisted in its service all the dramatic 
talent and power produced in Wales. The Welsh 
sermon is often built on the lines of the drama, and no 
country has ever bred better exponents of the dramatic 
art.46 But if by Literature be meant that witchery over 
words and ideas which charms the mind, kindles the 
emotion, ennobles the motive, and gives eyes to see and 
understand what was never realized before, then there 
is Literature, and good literature too, in the Black Book. 
The better Welsh poets have ever lived in the closest 
communion with nature, and none knew better that the 
wind bloweth where it listeth. They delight us with 
their mel varSoni, their mer gerSeu cain, and lead us ' where 
the white clover blows ; where the dew pearls the fields ; 
where the minstrels are in constant harmony.' 
Man y mae meillon, a gwlith ar dirion, 
Man y mae cerSorion ynghyweir gysson. 26'3 

4* English people ' cannot imagine how the Welsh can stand two or three 
sermons running, and that twice, or even thrice in the same day' — as at a 
Sassiwn. If they were English sermons neither could I. The dramatic 
element and the concrete method make all the difference. An Englishman 
can sit for hours at a theatre. I have tried the theatre, and I have tried the 
Sassiwn, and I prefer the Sassiwn — it is more dramatic, and has, at its best, 
far better matter than the modern drama. 

^•^•^- ■ xxix 


Their soothing praise, molawd esmwyih, ' wakes music like 
unto a golden organ — small the difference.' 13-3 
Musig a gan, mal eur orian, — min wahanieth. 

They ' see visions in the night and a maiden 

fair as the wave broken upon the pebbled shore.' 7-9 

BreuSwyd a welvvn ... a bun deg liw gwaneg gro. 
To them 'the Spring is the choicest season, with its 
chirming of birds and green shoots : the plows are in 
the furrow, the oxen yoked, and the face of the fields 
present a variety of colours .... when the cuckoo 
calls in the leafy branches of the trees.' 33" i 

Kynhevin, ceinhav amser ; 

Dyar adar, glas calleS ; 

Ereidr yn rhych, ych yngweS ; 

GvvyrS mor, brithottor tireS ; 

Ban ganhont gogeu ar vlaen gwyS gwiw. 

Who that has once read the ode to winter can ever 
forget it ? Not he who has experience of the moods 
of the elements on hill and dale, and has watched the 
heaving sea, not especially if he can say with the bard : 

Adeileis dy vry ar y vron. 
The very first lines cause us instinctively to button our 
coats, put up our collars and prepare to run : 

Llym awel, Uwm bryn ; 

AnhawS caffel clyd .... 

BraiS allan orsevir. 89' 1-4 

'Keen is the breeze, and bare the hill; shelter is hard 
to find . . . scarce out can man remain.' The cold 
penetrates the very marrow. 'The dust eddies, the 
tempest grows, the trees with tumultuous arms swing 
wildly in the woods, the ship scuds with bare poles at 
sea, the gull rides the surf, wave upon wave thunders 


upon the shore, and the hills echo the resounding roar.' 
Again : ' the day shortens, the night lengthens, the dew 
ceases, bees live in confinement, birds grow mute, the 
ox is stalled, red grows the dawn, dark the sea, and 
mountain tempests flood the lea.' And again : ' the ford 
is roughened, the lake is frozen, the cotton grass withers, 
the feeble perish, snow mantles hill and dale, the stag 
hunches his back and seeks the glen, the warriors quit 
the field, and idle lies the shield : beautiful is the shield 
on the shoulder of the brave.' 

What a picture of the extreme severity of the weather 
is conjured by the slow-moving couplet: gi-io 
Briwhid tal glann Gan garw culgrwm cam. 
Behold the stag, grown lean with hard fare, doubled up 
by want and cold, wandering with melancholy step, over 
the frozen snow-covered ground in search of drink, till 
he comes to a place where the stream runs swift : there 
in his effort to reach the water 'the bank crumbles' 
beneath his hoof, and he has hardly the strength to 
regain his footing. Who that has witnessed a scene of 
the kind can ever forget the pathos of it. 

The ode has many such touches, and the whole 
deserves to be rendered into English by a poet familiar 
with the bleak places of the earth. What is translated 
above is merely a summ.ary of the sense of selected 
lines, without adhering to the order of the original. 

It is doubtful if the poem, as we have it, can be a 
Coherent whole, because the subject of winter appears 
fitfully in the latter part, where we have instead what 
appears to be a Dialogue, in which the persons and the 





allusions are equally obscure. If Pelis be a proper 
^^l"l name, as seems likely, who is he? And what is the 
history of Mwngc ? Wherefore, and when did this 
ill-tempered stranger administer 'a cudgelling to the 
gallant chieftain, MechyS, who was the first to bridle 
horse.' We are told that this tamer of horses was the 
son of Llywarch hen, but little else. So that we are in 
the position of Drudwas, who ' does not understand,' 937. 
We have also an englyn, withering in its sarcasm, 
which has no perceptible connection with its setting. 
Nid wyd scolheig, nid wyd eleig, — unben 

Nith elwir ynyS rh.aid : 
Och GinSilig ! na buost wraig. 
Thou art neither scholar nor hermit, — nor chieftain 

Wilt i/iou be in the day of stress : 
Alas, KinSilig ! thou wert not a woman born. 
Many of the poems, quoted under previous headings, 
make good literature. It is unnecessary to give them 
again. Consider the passage already translated, lines 14-16 
of page xxi, anticipating the crossing of the bar. How 
gently does fold after fold of the curtain fall : 
Kyn myned im gweryd, im irveS ; 
Ynhywyll, heb ganwyll im gorseS ; 
Im gwein-vod, im gorod, im gorweS. 30-3 
The minor is ever the major note of the Welsh muse. 
Some attribute this to long centuries lived under the 
weight of the Norman and Saxon heel ; others to the 
near kinship of tears to laughter, for the Kelt, it is said, 
is the creature of extremes, the child of sentiment and 
emotion. Whatever may be the fruitful cause it is 
patent to all who are familiar with the best poetry in 
Welsh and English, that the strength of the one lies in 


abstract thought, in narrative, in the drama ; while the 
other excels in the region of the affections, and particu- 
larly in the expression of that wistful mystery which 
broods over nature, life, and the grave. The one is 
material ; the other is etherial. How tremulously 
haunting is this line : Ag yB oe8 ovud i Iwro teint tud. 

And there was grief along the harp-strings of the people. 
The strings of their own" motion, as it were, wail and 
thrill in sympathy with a nation's sorrow. 

Amlwg anhuneS, Can ethyw vynghereint yn adweS. 33"9. 
I am restless, for my loved ones have gone whence they came. 

The descent of life is also graphically painted : 
Dynessa heneint a lied arnad : 
Dy glust, dy drem, dy 8eint neud adweS; 
Dychrycha croen dy vyseS. 

Old age approaches thee, broader grown, 

Sans hearing, sans sight, sans teeth, 

All wrinkled to the finger-tips. 

The same alphabet is at the service of all, but how 
differently it is combined, even by those at the top of 
the talk in their mother tongue. The difference be- 
comes more marked still in the case of one condemned 
to use a step-dame's speech. Let it, therefore, be 
remembered by those who cannot read the original, 
that, in estimating its literary qualities, the shortcomings 
of the renderings must be eliminated. Prose can do no 
more than approximate the sense of verse, the charm 
and music of assonance and rhyme vanish like a fairy 

at a touch. " a little more, and how much it is ; 

A little less, and what a world's away." 

47 In England no one hears of anything but 'guns going off spontaneously.' 
The note and the interests are ever difEerent. 

B.B.C. xxxiii 


Pan aned Gereint oe8 agored pyrth nev. 
Liter' ' When Gereint was born the portals of heaven were open, 

ature At his first cry the graces and the gifts rushed headlong 
through,— they rocked his cradle and filled his dreams 
with visions. They ever waited on him till he grew 
up to be a prince among his fellows, peerless in grace 
and thought and action. So it came about 'that he 
led while he lived.' Pen llu vu ira vu i amser. 
Wherever he went the order always was : ' Sound the 
horn of gladness, sing the song of peace and sunshine.' 

Kenhittor kyrn elwch, cathl heSwch a hinon. 
Universal benediction follows the happy-born. Orders, 
favour, glory are his portion, children his happiness. 
UrSen amaw, rhad ag anaw, a ffaw a phlant. 
If passages such as these are not pure literature, there 
is something wrong with literature. They give a golden 
sheen to every page, and illumine many an experience 
in life. As the fallen leaf rustles beneath the foot, the 
words come unbidden to the lips : Mn hi, eleni ganed. 
Old is she, tho' this year born. 
If anyone would know and appreciate the B.B.C., let 
him apply his mind to it. An acquaintance extending 
over twenty years has taught the writer to love it for 
its inspiration, its tender utterances, its many melodies. 
Let him who will dissent, I will hold to my faith. Yea, — 

I 8uw gwyn gwengerS a ganav — 
' To the blessed God a holy lay will I sing,' for this rich 
legacy of noble poetry, reaching far back into the ages, 
when as yet England's muse was uncradled. Were the 
sons of Wales acquainted with their heritage, and 
worthy of it, the prophecy might yet be fulfilled : 
Kymry a orvyi, cain vyhy dyd. 

xxxiv B.B.C. 


" Tkt great mass of criticism is delivered 'viva voce,' and never 
af pears in print at all. This spoken criticism is of far greater 
importance than the printed criticism. It is repeated again and 
again, in all sorts of places, on hundreds of occasions, and cannot 
fail to make dints in people's minds .... The tongue of our 
contemporaries is mightier than the pen." — AUGUSTINE BlRRELL. 

' ' The man who is laughing at you drags a tail also 

and shall be taught to look into the wallet on his own back, of 
which he knows so little." — Horace. Book II, Satire iii. 

HE Black Book of Carmarthen has been printed 
several times. When the Myvyrian Archaiology of '' 
Wales was undertaken the conception of editorial duties 
did not go beyond printing the most accessible text from 
a late transcript. Mr. William F. Skene, however, in the 
Four Ancient Books of Wales, pointed out the true 
method, but did not always tread the path of virtue. 
His knowledge of WeLsh was inadequate for his purpose, 
and his purpose was inadequate for the attainment of 
an accurate text. He set to work with prepossessions, 
and definite theories to propagate. He wandered over 
the hills of Wales in moonshine — he saw a North Briton 
in every gorse-bush bending before the wind — he 
affixed, like a geographical pioneer, Strathclyde labels 
to familiar Welsh place-names, and he was apt to 
discover sixth century incidents in twelfth century 
historical facts. « Nunc aliquis dicat mihi : ' Quid tu ? 
Nullane habes vitia ?' Immo alia et fortasse minora." 

My concern has been throughout to avoid errors <)f my 
own, not to call attention to those of my predecessors, 






much less to execute the usual war-dance on their 
prostrate bodies. Mr. Skene's text was the best till the 
appearance of the Collotype Facsimile in i888. All 
who travel over the same ground owe him a debt of 
gratitude, and far be it from me to cast at him a stone. 

Pawb at cenvyS, o byb bat, 

a bawhyn er na byhei. 

A fault is plain to every eye : 

The cad doth ever add the spy. 
Various commentators have written on detached por- 
tions of the text. A list of these contributions I am 
unable to give, having unfortunately seen few of them. 
I have been chained, like a dog, to manuscripts and 
texts for a quarter of a century, with no margin of 
time for serious study : and now I live in exile, out of 
reach of libraries, and cannot refer to books and articles 
that should be consulted. For example Prof Strachan 
informs me of a series of Notes in the Archiv fur Celtische 
Philologie by Prof Loth. Students must consult these 
Notes for themselves, and especially Prof. Strachan's 
own paper in Eriu l/f on the Mutation of the initial 
consonants in the Old Welsh Verb. Prof Rhys has also 
dealt with detached passages in his various writings. 
Stephens, in his Literature of the Kymry, was the first to 
introduce sanity into Welsh criticism and his book, if 
somewhat out of date, is still worth reading. 

The present text has been reproduced diplomatically, 
page for page, line for line, character for character, 
space for space. Every letter which the writer failed to 
read easily is faintly underdotted ; every letter retraced 
has a wavy line under it ; and every letter become 

xxxvi B.B.C. 

illegible through efTacement , or damage to the vellum is 
underlined. Different sizes of types are used for the 
different sizes of the handwriting of the manuscript. 
Most of the Xiarge Initials are traced copies of the 
originals. The greater number of these are coloured 
red/^ a good many are green, and a few are chrome, the 
prevailing colour used for patching the smaller Capitals 
represented by heavier faced type. These Capitals are 
of all sizes, and in a variety of styles, involving the use 
of fourteen distinct founts on different sized bodies. 
The work of adjustment, and its cost in time and 
money will be incomprehensible to all who have not 
made the experiment. I believe that only my assistant^' 
and myself have ever attempted such a combination of 
founts, and that the B.B.C. is unique among printed 
books. It is to all intents and purposes a facsimile in 
characters which all can read. No pains have been 
spared to make the readings faithful and reliable 
transcripts of the original ; and I cherish the private 
conviction of a happy issue to this part of the work. 

The interpretation of the text is quite another matter. 5° 
The wise editor attempts nothing beyond his knowledge. 
I have deliberately transgressed this golden rule, and 

48 Particulars respecting these are given in the appendix. 

49 Mr. George Jones of Lampeter, now of the firm of Messrs. Fox , Jones & Co. , 
Kemp Hall, Oxford. I have to thank Mr. Jones for entering into my plais 
with interest and intelligence; and for helping me to carry them out effici- 
ently. The press-work is also the result of our joint-efforts. 

50 Occasionally ambiguity may arise from the double use of / = S & /. The 
sense as a rule solves this trouble, but not always as for example : Rac deuwr 
ineutwr y tirran, which may be read in two ways : Rhag de\iwr ynEuSwr, or 
yn eu twr y tyrran, i.e. Before two men into Deu5wr, or into their tower they 
throng.' Since writing the Pal. Note I have seen Dr. Davies's transcript, 
where Deu&wr is adopted, with twr queried in the margin. 

'Od of 





hazarded here and there the interpretation of serious 
difficulties, but in no greedy spirit. I have left enough 
to satisfy the ambition of others ; and I have, I trust, 
blundered often enough to giv6 pleasure to certain 
' friends.' After all we should not be churlish, and deny 
pleasure where we can bestow it. The B.B.C. offers 
abundant opportunities in this direction. The anonymous 

lines Er cymenn a harllenwy, 

Dyallyr Llyvyr Du nid wy. 1 7 '9- 1 o. 
must find an echo on every reader's lips. And yet 
every fresh reading reduces the list of difficulties, a fact 
that should convince us that our own lack of perception 
is quite as much at fault, as the lapses of the scribe, 
and the reputed obscurities of the poems. When two 
students compare notes, nothing is so noticeable as that 
the difficulties of the one are not, as a rule, the difficulties 
of the other. Were it possible to seat at a round table 
those who have given attention to the text, & were each 
eager to contribute his best, few obscurities would remain. 

But, alas ! BreuSwyd a welwn neithwyr, 

Ys celvyS a'i dehonglo. 7 '4 

Paleographical Notes are usually confined to re- 
marks dealing with any peculiarity, or indistinctness in 
the writing itself, without touching upon the blunders 
of the scribe. The latter in the present work include 
palpable misreadings, alterations and omissions, as 
evidenced by assonance and metre, by rhyme and 
sense. This opens wide the door of textual criticism, 
and multiplies the duties and difficulties of the paleo- 
grapher. However, wherever there is the smallest 
remnant of a vanished letter, word or phrase, —a stroke, 

xxxviii B.B.C. 

an angle, or a curve, a thorough knowledge of the 
writing and idiosyncracies of the scribe provides a ^**' 
scientific basis to build upon. The space left illegible ^"'' ' 
in the manuscript must be measured; note of the 
sense of the context must be taken ; and a word of 
the right length must be found. If this word have a ^"'* 
letter with a corresponding stroke, angle or curve at ^""^ 
the right place, the emendation ceases to be guess-work.*' 
If, in the case of poetry, it be confirmed by the super- 
added test of versification, it can be admitted into the 
text with confidence. The latter test has indeed 
tempted the editor to trespass occasionally beyond the 
frontier of his science.'" But no attempt has been made 
to restore omissions in the text, — that being entirely 
the creative work of the imagination. 

By omissions are not meant lacunae, of which there 
are at least four, as shewn by the following table of 
the gatherings or quires, which now make up the MS. 
Quire i consists of 4 leaves = pages i — 8** 






9 — 20 


















41 — 60 


















**97— 108 

We thus see that the original number of folios, 
which constituted a quire, varied, because there is no 
lacuna between ii. and iii., which have six and four folios 

51 See Fiusimile 4y5; $6'6. ^ s^/iiV, s8'i4-is. 

Si^ The student must be warned that <:;>■ is used loosely for contrasting, as 
well as for comparing different passages and words. Many of the Notes are 
of a tentative character. The ' probably^,' queries, and suggestions should 
be carefully distinguished from solutions. 





respectively, nor between iv., which has six, and v., 
which has ten folios. It is clear, therefore, that a quire 
is missing between i. and ii., between iii. and iv., and 
between vii. and viii., or that the Manuscript is made 
up of different fragments.53 It is necessary to add that 
the writing, beginning with line 12 of page 79, is later 
than the manuscript, probably much later, for it has all 
the appearance of a base, blundering imitation : it is 
continued on page 80, which has been read in parts 
only, and that not sufficiently continuously to be 
printed, at least for the present. 
The Index has been a work of anxiety. Like Aeneas 

Ignari hominumque locorumque Erramus. 
That all the proper names, which occur in the text, will 
be found in the Index is a matter of hope, rather than 
of confidence. The aim has been to omit nothing, not 
even doubtful items ; but unfortunately ' the doubtful ' 
is a shifting element where knowledge is imperfect. 
Every fresh reading breeds almost as many doubts as 
it removes, thus calling for recurrent slight revision. 
Many of the entries are neither proper names nor 
subjects of doubt. These, and those which present 
difficulties, are printed without the initial Capital letter. 
I have to thank Prof Rhys for allowing me, some 
years ago, to see his private index to the Facsimile : 
but he must not be held responsible for any error in 
this work, which he has not seen, more particularly as 
the entries differ in some respects. 

53 The fact that pages i, 8, 9, 80, 96, & 108 are stained, shews that they 
were once 'outside' pages, and formed separate parts. We have in the 
B.B.C., probably, only mere fragments of the collection originally made. 

Xl B.B.C. 

It remains for me to acknowledge my indebtedness 
for valuable criticism and help to two fellow-students. 
Prof. J. Morris Jones was so good as to discuss certain 
difficulties with me, and to read over with care some of 
the more debatable Notes. His affirmations have been 
harvested and follow the mark t. But it is the nemesis 
of destructive criticism to perish with what it modifies. 
The Notes have benefitted further from the caution and 
scholarship of Prof. Strachan, who kindly read the 
' revises ' : his additions follow the mark |5^ Thus a 
certain number of the Notes have undergone pruning or 
restatement, and a few have disappeared. For all 
services and kindness I offer my heartiest thanks to 
both friends. Let it, however, be clearly understood that 
each is responsible only for what is specifically credited 
to him. Neither stands sponsor for the writer's emen- 
dations, suggestions, and 

The References to other texts are to editions in 
this Series, including several works printed, but not 
yet published^^ This may cause inconvenience for a 
time, but it is unavoidable, as the readings in the older 
editions are not invariably correct, and corrections are 
expensive. He, who has to pay for every word he prints, 
has a wholesome discipline in the cause of brevity. 

54Prof. Strachan wishes me to state that credit should be given to Prof. Loth 
for some of the notes marked %. I regret my mistake. 

SSSome of the errors are corrected at the very end of the book. I should 
be glad to recast many of the non-paleographical notes, but no one, who 
knows the difficulties of the text, will expect finality. The detection of my 
blunders may inspire some young student to take up the study of the B. B.C., 
and lead him to improved results. Every generation sits on the shoulder of 
its predecessor : it should, therefore, see further and do better. See 55*'. 

56Towit; I. TheTextandFacsimileof the Bookof Aneirin; 2. TheText and 
Facsimile of the Book of Taliessin ; 3. The White Book Mahinogion ; 4. The 
Poetry in the Red Book of Hergest; 5. Facsimile of the Black Book of Chirk. 

B.B.C Xji 




I have much pleasure in acknowledging my indebted- 
*" *'ness for access to the original Manuscript, and in 
*"*"* tendering my cordial thanks to Mr. Wynne, whose 
kindness and courtesy have ever been uniformly un- 
failing to the writer. 

Oarmarthenshire gave birth to the Black Book in 

the twelfth century, & one of her sons, in the twentieth, 

presents it to the nation. Thus the first & last link 

in the history of the Manuscript meet in a way to 

kindle the imagination. It greatly pleasures another 

of her children to associate with the happy event this 

Diplomatic Reproduction, by linking it with the name of 

Stije JFirat IPrcetHent of t^ie Mtlel) jraational Libtarp, 

the first In personal effort for its establishment, 

the first in personal sacrifice for its good, 

& the first in the importance of his 

contributions to its treasures. 

y. Qwenogvryn Svans 

)remvan, Pwllheli. 
Gitiyl Wenog, 1907. 

xlii ^^-^^ 

• <iilii'nuC lifnury of lladjx 


Adwin caer yflit ar Ian llyant ... ... 46-1 

Afallen peren per y changeu ... ... 48-4 

Arduireaue tri trined in celi ... ... ... 36-11 

Affuynaw naut duv diamhev y daun ... yS'i 

Betev ae gulich y glav, e, ... ... ... 63-2 

Bendith nautoryw new ir keluit creaudir ... 88-3 

Bendith y wenwas ir dec diyrnas ... ... 87-3 

Brenhin guirthvin guirth uchaw yflit ... 41-5 

Breuduid a uelun neithwir ... ... ... 7 '3 

Can treghis wiguifc amhoen ... ... ... -jo'z 

Canis coegauc yfll moreurauc a hin ... ... 97-3 

Kyd karhwiue morva. caflaaue mor ... ... loo-g 

Kygogion. Elaeth ae cant. ... ... ... 70-1 

Kymhenach doythach nyd wy ... ... ... 17-7 

Kyntaw geir adywedaw y bore ban kyuodaw 82 -x 

Kyvaenad keluit . kynelv o douit ... ... i8-i 

Kywarchaw im ri. Rad wobeith ... ... 104 -3 

Devs ren rymawy awen ... ... ... gi 

Dinas maon duv daffar ... ... ... 46.9 

Dv dy uarcii du dycapan ... ... ... 8i-i 

Duv in kymhorth in nerth in porth ... ... 73'ii 

E Betev ae gulich y glav ... ... ... 63-2 

Eneid kid im guneit ... ... ... ... 23-4 

Enwev meibon llywarch hen ... ... 107-8 

Gereint filius Erbin ... ... ;.. ... 71-11 



Goduryw a glyuaw. ar claur maelenit ... 103-2 

Gogonedauc argluit hanpich guell ... ... 35-1 

Greid bleit blyghaud ... ... ... ... 10-12 

Gveith reith rysset ... ... ..: ... 13-6 

Gwin y bid hi y vedwen in diffrin guy ... 47-1 

Gwledic arbennic. Ban geneife o honaud ... 86-6 

Gvledic arbennic erbin attad ... •■• 85-7 

Hervit vrten. autyl kyrridven ... ... 151 

Heb cofifav duv daun diffrid gwirion .■• 70-13 

Hoian a parchellan Bydan a vit ■•• ■•• 61 -6 

In enu domni meu y voH ... ... ... 39-4 

Llym awel Hum brin . anhaut cafifael did ... 89-1 

Marchauc a girch y dinas ■•■ ■•• ... loi-io 

Marunadeu Madauc mab Maredut ••. ■■• 103-6 

Meinoeth kiclev lew heid ... ■■■ •■• 97-1 

Merddin wyllt hagr orwyllt haint ... ... 46-20 

Mi ae gowinneis y offereid bid ... ... 84-2 

Moli Duu in nechrev a diuet ... ... 29-1 

Mor truan genhy mor truan ... ... -.■ 1-2 

Nac imadneirun neu rimwaredun ... ... 24-9 

Oian a parchellan ... ... ... ... 52-62 

Pa gur yv y porthaur ... ... ... 94-1 

Seithenhin sawde allan ... ... •■■ 106-6 

Rac gereint gelin kystut ... ... ... 71-12 

Tarv trin anvidin blaut ... ... ••■ 97"i3 

Tec yd gan ir adaren ar perwit pren ... 107-9 

(Tra vom kyd kerded goned kydimyteith) ... 79-12 

Tri anreith march inif pridein ... ... 27-7 

Ystarnde wineu fruin guin ... ... ... 83-1 

Yth arkiveir ar pennic penn 75-6 




Introductory Remarks.- 

i The Mythology in the Dialogues 

it Religion and Theology 

Hi Historical References ... 

iv Literature 

The EDITOR'S Apologia .• 

/ Earlier Editions of the Text . . . 

ii Method of Reproduction explained 

Hi The problems of Paleography 

iv The gatherings of the Manuscript 

V The Index 

vi Acknowledgment to fellow-workers 

vii Gaudeamus 

Index to First Lines 


The Verb To Be and its compounds, S^c. 
The less familiar forms of Verbs in the B.B.C. 
Paleographical and other Notes 

General Index 

Postscript dr' Appendix 

Additional Notes, and Corrections 
List of Subscribers 





... XXXV 

... xxxvi 





... xlii 

... xliii 

I— 1 08 


... 112 








^^'''^^#^^'*^ 02 truan gen/ 

1 I f^y ^^^ truan . 
I M LadeRyv. amke'' 
duyv achauan. Oed 11a/ 
chaR kyulauaR kyula^ s 
uan. Oed yfcuid otryu/ 
Ruyd o tRyuan . Calpeg. 
Oed maelgun auelun s 
inimuan y teulu rac tqz^ 



yuulu ny thauant . ^j>EtiN. i 
Rac deuur ineutuR y tirr^ 
an . Rac eRRith . agurrith 3 
y aR Welugan . Mein w'v 
nev indiheu adygan . Mo^s 
ch guelheRyniueR ganel^ 
gan . Och oe leith maur a^? 
teith y deuthan . CaltelTiN. 
Rys undant oet Rychv/ 9 


ant y taRian . hid attad y ^ 
daeth rad kyulaun . llaf 
kynduR tra meffur y ku^ 3 
ynan . lias haelon o din^ 
on tra uuan . ©RyuiR . 5 
nod mauR eu clod.gan. 
elgan .^iiattN. ©Ruy a th^ 7 
rui . Ruy . aRuy . trav a th^ 
rau imdoeth y doethan . 9 


brau amelgan . llat dy/i 
uel oe diuet kyulauan 
ab erbin ae uemn aw/ 3 
Dalies naethanlflAi maelgun 
bu yfcun y doethan . aeR 
wiR kad trybelidiad . 6 
guaedlan . Neu gueith 
aRywdeRit pan vit y 
deunit . o hid y wuchit 9 

//> B.B.C. 

y darpan . llyas peleidrad 
guaedlad guadlan . Uy/ 
aus.aeRwiR bRyv bre^ 
uaul vidan . ILyaus 
ban bnivheR . llyaus 
ban foheR . Uyauf ev 
hymchuel in eu hymv/ 
an . CalteffiN Seith me/ 
ib eliffeR . Seith guiR 

B.B.C. /// 

ban brouheR.Seith guaew ny 
ochel in eu feithran . ^piatiN. 
Seith tan. vueliN. Seith kad 3 
kyueRbin. Seithued kinve/ 
Hn y pop kinhuan . CaltelTtN. 5 
Seith guaew gowanon. Seith 
loneid awon . Oguaed kinre/ 
inon ydylanuan. jO^piatiN. s 
Seith ugein haelon . aaethan 
ygwllon.yg coed kehton.y. 
daRUuan . Can yf mi myRtin 

11^ B.B.C. 

guydi. talieffin . bithaud . 
kyffrediN . vy darogan . 2 

Creuduid auelun neithw/ 
ir. yfceluit ae dehoglho . 
Ny ritrelthir y reuit . nif 5 
guibit aR nuygelho . Gueithred 
llara llyuiau niuer nid hoffet 7 
meiuret bro , Neur uum ydan 
un duted a bun dec liu guanec 
gro . Nid cur llauur uRth din 10 
da . 3,6 coffa arnuydalho . Gua- 

'^/9^ eth. 7 


vygniw odiuattep . ir nep nuy/ i 
hatnappo . Nytiuuc rac drlcwe^ 
ithred . imattrec guydi darffo . 3 
Nydichuenic but pedl . yfguell 
delli urth auo . 3,c imganlin a^ 5 
deduit . adioffrid aaduo . 3,w/ 
na mynich enuuyret . Ordivet 7 
afeRlinho . NId ehalath aftra^ 
etha. nychaffaw aehamhevo . 9 
Ny lluit reuuet ydlreid . Ny 
chenir buyeid ar ffo . Nynaut n 
ucheneid rac guael . Ny dcRl/ 
lit hael aR nuybo . Ny ry del 13 

iv*" B.B.C. 


evs ren lymawy 
awen. amen fiat, 
fynedic waud. 3 
fruythlauN trae^ 
thaud.trybefttaud heid.Her^ 
vit uRten autyl kyRRidven. 6 
ogyR ven amhad. Amhad' 
anav aReith awyRllav.ycav s 
keineid.Cuhelin baRtkym^ 
raec haRt kidvRthodiad . 10 
keRt kymuynas.ked kyWa / 
tas. caf amtimeid . CathyR. 12 

kywyftraud. kyvan volaud. i 
cluttaud attad.Kywrgein gen^ 
hid.cozachiwid.kyhid kydneid. 
KywyRgiRn kyvle ky wlauN 4 
flamde kywvire vad.Kenetyl 
W0202 . ky wrifc wofcozd . kyg/ 
waRvs mavR. kirllavReircch/ 
eid.KeRit vycho'. kerenhitnod 
clod achvbiad.Clo kelvid.ka^ 
nt kalan kid. kynvllid greid. 
reid bleit blyghaud . Gre/ 

JO *'" B.B.C. 

tyw detyw duraud.gnaud i 
brauduriaeth .Gur oet eit^ 
oel g02vy reol. gozdethol do ' 
eth.Gvytbuil dragon. gof^ 4 
paRth brython.gofgyman 
gvith.Gvaud tryganet. 
gnaud kyhidet .gozffet 
metveith . Metcvin kyw/ 
ran . marchauc mi t Ian. «» 9 
manN meidrolaeth . Mett^ 
rid mur ioz.maus pedir n 
pedro2. maur coz kyvoeth. 


B.B.C. VI 


• Moes vreifc vreyR . Moes i 
wiRth vehiR. milwiR ozvith. 
Maer claer kywid . mad cath^ 
yl kyvid.moidit ieith.Mas 4 
cas nognav.minhev nev frav. 
molav frav fraeth . Muner uo 
dauc.maer anhetauc . maret 
auc doet^ Medel vifci mel s 
vartoni . mynogi gvyth . sss« 
Mynvinad vron . metv ton 10 
dros traeth . Mcr kertev «» 

1 2 f/* B.B.C. 



kein.mywiR covein.mire^ i 
in anoeth.Meneftir.vytud. 
meuvet vetvd.molud ef^ 3 
muith . Mufic agan mal 
eur vahanieth. 
^veith reith ryffet . gvi^ 6 
ch Ruich ryuet rinuet re^ 
en . Rec Ryfiolaw . Rec aar/ s 
chaw.Ruymav iuRthen. 
Ruthur . vthiR avel . Ryn^ 10 
aut uvel . Ryvel vebiN . 

B.B.C. vii IX 

RuteuR dyRllit . Rychlud • 
clodRit . Rihit aden . Rev^ 
wet paraud . Rin vynn • => 3 
wafcaud . tra gwaud wo^ 
bRiN . Ry hait itaut . Ry 5 
cheidv ynaut . Rac caut 
gelin . Ry. chedwis detyf . 7 
Ry chynis gretyw . Rac => 
lletyw ogyRven . Rac 
dac . droffow . Reghid 

bRid bot.Rot cuhelin. 

14 y/A B.B.C. 

1 1 

ervit VRten . autyl .i 
kyrridven . ogyR-^ 
ven amhad . Amhad 3 
anav . aneith awyRlI/ 
av . y cav keineid . Cv/ 
helin doeth . kymraec 6 
coeth . kyvoeth awyR^ 
llav . keluit id gan . s 
cluiR viR aedan . ky/ 
Wlavan lev . KeRt 10 

kywlaundeR . kadeir 

B.B.C. vm 


diRpeR cadir wobeR.yv. i 
kanholicion caffod eilon. 
keinon vRthav.Cau tyiRn^s 
et cathil kyhidet kyuryff; 
wyv. Campuf y veiRch . 5 
canhyn ae peiRch . kywre^ 
neirch glyv. C02 wa^ 
radred. kenetyl noted ked s 
kywetliv.lliwed ahuN. 
llyffeit eituN. IIun 
llyd am kywoz.llog deffeP 
fo2. Hog pozth anav.llvgy/ 12 

1 5 f///* B.B.C. 

rIn kytrim.Iledvegingrim.i 
Him yd grim glev. UeuveR 
fynhuiR. llauer a vyR. llv^s 
iR id woziv. Gozpo^^gulet 
druy tagnevet het o het^ 5 

. iv 

Kym hen ach doyth ach ny dwy 7 

Yr by by I heb ivy bod beth "wetwy 

er kym enn a ddar llenwy 

dyallyr llyfyr dy ny dwy lO 

llyfr du 
Dyallu 'r llyfr du nid tvyf. 



yvaenad keluit. kyne 
Iv o douit . kyuaenad 
kynan o cRift kein did -" 
an. Ac vei gyucRkinan am.y.4 
gylchin huan.ARgnyueRpe^ 
g02 y ffit y dan mo2. Ar gny/' 
ueR.edeinauc aozuc kyuoeth 
auc. Acvei.vei.paup.tRi tRy/ 
chant tauaud.Nyellynt ve 9 
traethaud. kywoethevy tRin^ 
daud .Din dyual y faud. Ny ^ 

1 8 i^ B.B.C. 

eRuill cofpaud. kymuN bid pa 
Raud.ineRbin tRidaud. Bid 
glafglefychaud. Ban wan -^3 
ha.y gnaud y diodRut.y iffca/ 
ud . Guae ti din hewid piR 5 
doduid im bid. Onid imwa^ 
redit.02drucdigonit.Nev 7 
duid yth Rihit. ythuRid. a. 
keRit . DRud dy tihenit . dy 
imtuiN aR llogylwit . Wrv 'o 
ach dydivet . dy lauRiav. o . 

B.B.C. Jf jg 

vet.afegi athraed ymlith pRit 
athydwet.Dihafal dyimte/ 2 
ith dyiffcaR ath kedimteith . 
Co2ph diffid diReid.gobuill.o. 
th enid. Cozph niglivit paleue 
iR y gilit. Pa Roteifte oth Rev^ 
vet . kinkyues aRgel. Pa ro^ 7 
teifte otholud kin muill moll 
mud. acy haRuetud. acydad-^ 

aud. 3,c nyRiuelffud y meint agaR'' 
yffud. 3,c itoet owud y luRv teint n 

20 ^ B.B.C. 

dud. Adaon itaethant igkym/ 
eint offuiant . Pkit pRinude^ 
chant. othRiit ageugant. Ac 3 
yfmoztiuant mal goffod am^ 
Rant. AueleifteogaRant afvj 
treis tragiffant.Ny pheRchei^ 
fte guencR oth vauRetyllteR. 
Nicheuntofte padeR na phil^ 
geint na gofpcR. PadeR pRiw 
traethaud. gobuill o nebaudio 
namuiN y tRindaud. Ry talud 
iftedlit tRi feith padcRbeunit. 
Affv ac nidoes . ac nithreghis. 

B.B.C. Xt 21 

ev hoes . moe y dinwaffute meR phregeth evegil. An 
deid iglethuiRguRth nabuo^ 
ft vffil. Ni pheRcheifte creiR-^ 
ev na Hoc na llanev. Nid en ^ 
deueifte kiwRev beiRt gouec 
higlev. NipheRcheifte kiurek 
th ereaudiR new kin lleith lly^ 
auf aghiuieth adodute aR 9 
diaReith.Gvae vi piRimtei^ 
th genhide in kyudth.Gvae n 
vi piR wuuf aR dikiuolv • 
pan douthume attad oth 13 


xfi B.B.C. 


bichan vianuad.Neu RimaRtu 
ad othlauR kiueithad. Arhun 
nincredninep.othtremint trv^ 
jNeid kid im^ yted.4 

guneit . in aghen digeR^ 

it.GuiRyvguae uinhevpiR 6 
deuthofte imgotev. Nac iRO^ diuet.nade^ 
chrev . O feith lauanad . ban 9 
im fe fuinad.O feith creaduR 
pan im dodath aR puR . Oet^ 
un. taN. llachaR. pan im Rot/ 
ed paR. OetuN pRit daeaR . 13 

B.B.C. xu 23 

nym dy haetei alaR. OetuNi 
guint gouchaf llei vy hruc 
nom da.Oetunnyul aR 3 
mynit yn keiffau keton^ 
hit. Oetun blodev guit aR 5 
vinep eluit. Amffuinaffeie 
douit imdodath aR deunit. 
Eneid kid imgunit. « 

ac imadneRUN nev . 

RimwaRedun. keu^ 
gant kywraghaum .wide 
kywiffcaRaN.Achiwnod fe 
net . Acheugant kinatlet. 13 

1 1 



xii" B.B.C. 

AdaduiReinobetguydi hiR ^ 
go2wet.Kywoethauc duw a 
wet.ydiN inydeheu wuchet. 3 
Adyadu taN aRpoploet any^ 
Ian . A lluch athaRian . a llya^ 
uf llydan. Nyllettaud lie d'v 6 
nag. na didRif na diag. Awi-' 
dy tagde teeRnaf aRvere.Dy 
gettauR.y.tRi.llv. Rac drech. 9 
drem ieffu.ILuguiRinguiNioN 
eiliv egilion .llv aRall bRith 
ion. eiliv bRodozion.TRyde 

llv diuedit.fyth leith gywei^ 13 






huilant iglithuiR impaRth^i 
reddievil.In vn nidaongan 
dull aghimon . Myny mae 
meillon agulith aR tiRion . 4 
Myny mae keRtozion in kyv^ 
eiR kyffon.Kein bid evgoff/ 
alon gan guledicgozchozti^ 
on.Mynymae ebeftil amtee^ 
Rnaf uwil. Menymae pyw 9 
hael inyclaeR kyueiftet. Ro^ 
tiad bid beddrael.nidguael 
y geRenhit. Achin deginulk 

26 ■ x"^ B.B.C. 

emne eiliveRt vedit . Or fa^^ 
ul dymguy tat . aR lleith dim-^ 
gozbit. Ac ew gueith dimgu^ 
nelemne.dimbrodic dit.Nif 
Rydraeth Ryuetev kyvoeth 
Ruytev douit. 

©Ri an Reith march inif pdein. 
C aRnawlauc maRch. OweiN. 
mab VRieN . a . Bucheflum 
fcRi . maRch GugauN clet^ 
ywRut . a . ©auautiR brei-" 
chiR . m . kadwallauN . fil! k. 

B.B.C. xiy 27 


Wri torn etyftiR inif pRideiN.css 

ArwuI melin. maRch paffcen fil! 

VRien.a.Du hiR teRwenhit 3 

.m.felyw mab kynan gaRRvin. 

a.DRudluid.m.RyteRch hael. 
Wri gohoev etyftiR inif pRideiN. 

Guynevgodvff.hiR.maRch kei. 

RuthiRehon tuthbleit.m.GiP 

beRd mab kadgyffRo.a.keiN 

caled . m . gualchmei . sssossss 

©Ri. hoev etiftiR inif pRideiN . ^o 

Uv ago2. m. karadauc. B. amely, 
. nlaf.m.kafwallauN mab Bely. 

28 Jf^y^ B.B.C. 


oli duu innechrev 
a diuet . Ae kyn/ 2 
iw ny welli ny om^ 
et . Vn mab meiR modri/ 
daw teeRnet . meir mam 5 
crift ergynan rianet.Dy/' 
dav yr heul 02 duyrein ir 
goglet . Dy eiraul ir dy . s 
maur drugaret . Ar dy 
mab iolud en karet . Duv 10 
uchom. Duu ragom. Duu 
vet.Renjiew anRotone ^^ 

B.B.C. XV 29 

ran trugaret . Teyrn uron. i 
tanc y romne. heb imomet 
Diwyccomne a digonhom 3 
o gamuet . KiN mynedim 
gueRid tywill 5 
heb canvill im gozffet .Ym 
Gueinvod im gozod im goz^ 
wet.guydi meiRch ac im-^ 
tuiN glaffuet. achyuet a^ 9 
chid im agraget . Ny chif^ 
gaw gobuyllaw om diw^ 
et. Gulad it im ne . yfag-^ 12 

20 J"^*" B.B.C. 

ro y maffvet . mal deil ovla^ 
en guit daduet . Guae ag^ 
aur agrauN maur ueRth^ 
et . ac onyfguataul y Riet. 4 
Kyn gatteR ew in Ryred. 
preffen.pygil uit inydi^ 
vet . Ny vir drud . nid 7 
yfcrid iny timhyr. Nychk 
uid uo2e . ny chiueirch . 9 
nid eiftet . ny chan wen 
nid eirch trugaret . Bit n 
chuero y talhaur iny di 





wet . SybeRuid . a maurw-^ t 
rid.amaRet. MeithriN coz^ 
ph.y lyffeint anadret.allev/ 
uod ac imtuiN enwiret . Ac 
agheu dydau uRth gluydet . 
Ewinluth dychinull dychi 
uet . Dyneffa heneint a lied 
aRnad . Dy cluft . di trem . 
di teint neud adwet . Dy 9 
chricha croen diuiffet . ath 
una heneint. alluidet.An 
eiRolve ne mihagel . ar ren 




new ran trugaret. Kinte^ i 
viN keinhaw amffer. Dyar 
adaR glas callet . EreidiR 3 
in Rich . ich iguet . Guirt 
mo2 brithottoz tiret . Ban 
ganhont cogev aR blaen 6 
guit guiw handid muy. 
vy llauuridet . Toft muc s 
amluc anhunet . kan eth-^ 
int uy keReint inattwet. 
ym bRin in tyno.ininyffet n 
mo2 impop fozt itelheR.rac 

E xvu 33 

criftguiN nid oes inialet.i 
Oet in chuant in car Ttrc^ 
ffet treitau ty tir dyalltu-^ 
det . Seith feint afeith^ 4 
ugeint . afeithcant . aw-" 
ant in un ozffet . Y gid a 6 
crift guiN.ny fozthint ve 
vygilet . Rec aarchawe « 
nim nacceR . y rof a duv . 
dagnouet . Ambo fozth . lo 
y po2th riet . Crift nybu^' 
ve trift ythozffet": 12 

34 xvii^ B.B.C. 


ogonedauc argluit 
hanpich guell. Athue 
dicco de egluif.achagell. A. 
kagell . ac egluis . A. vaft^ 
ad . a diffuis . A . TeiR An-^ 
haun yffit . Due uch guit. 
ac vn uch eluit . A . ykif 
gaud aR dit . A . SiRic ap 
wit . Athuendiguifte aw 
raham pen fit . A . vuchet 
tragiuit . A. adaR aguen^ n 
en. A. attpauR. adicN. 

B.B.C. XVII ^t 




Athuendigufte aron amo^i 
efen. A ^vafcul a femen. A. 
Seithnieu a seR. A.awiR. 3 
ac etheR . A . llevreu a lly^ 
theR. A.pifcaud in hydiR" 
ueR . A . ky wid . a gueith-^ 6 
red . A . tyuvod a thydued. 
A.yfaul da digoned.Ath^s 
uendigaf de argluit gogo^ 
ned. Gogonedauc. a.h.G. 10 
Ruireaue. tri trined in 
jceli.yffi UN^ 

xviii^ B.B.C. 

ed un ynni. vnguiRth oe i 
teithi.un duu diuoli.ath^ 
uolaf uaurri maur dy ur^ 3 
hidRi . Dyuolaur . yfguir . 
Dyuolaudir yf mi . yfbud 
baRtoni aRhelv eloy. Han^e 
pich guell crifti. pater. &. 
fili . & fpu . domni . on . ad^ 
onay . HRduireaue Dev. 9 
yffi vn aDeu.yffi tri hep 
ev.hep haut yamhev. Aw^ 
naeth fruith afreu a fop. 12 

B.B.C xtx 37 

amriffreu.Duu yenv.inDeu. 
Duy uau y kyffreu . D uu y env. 
in tri Duy uuaul y inni . Duu 3 
yenu invn.Duu paulac an-" 
nhuN. H-Rduyreaue . vn. iP 5 
yDeuacuN.iffi tri aRnuN.iP 
fi Duu y huN . aunaeth maur-^ 
th alluN.amafcul s 
nat kyuozuN baf ac anot^ 
UN. Auneth tuim ac oeR. a. 10 
heul alloeR.allythir.ig. 
Cuir afflam im pabuir.a. 12 

38 xiJ^ B.B.C. 

ferch in finhuir . abuN hyg^ 
aR huiR.allofci.pimp kaeR 

Nenu domni meuy.voli. 
mauR y uolaud . Molawe 5 
douit maur y kinnit aR y 
caRdaud . Duu anamuc . 7 
Duu angozuc . Duu an gu^ 
araud . Duu angobeith . 9 
teilug piRfeith. tec y pur^^ 
faud . Duu andyli . Duu if^ 
fi vRy. vrenhin trindaud. 12 

B.B.C. XX 29 

Duu abroued inytruyted T 
y trallaud . Duu a dyfu . oe 
garcharu gan vuildaud. 3 
Guledic deduit angunelin 
rit eRbin dit braud . Andu^ 
ch ir gulet ir y varet . ae . 6 
werindaud.Ym paradui. 
impur kynnuis racpuis 
pechaud . Angunel iechid 9 
iry penid ae pimp dirna^ 
ud . Dolur eghiRith . Duu 
andiffirth ban kymirth 12 

40 AA^' B.B.C. 

cnaud. Din a collei bei nafpRin/ i 
hei diuei devaud. Orcroc crevled y 
deuth guared ir vediffyaud . kad^ 3 
aRn bugeil crift nid adweil. y teily^ 
renhin guiRthvin f gdaud. 
guirth uchaw yffit . Yffi pen 
plant adaw . Yffi per gadeir 7 
gadarnaw.Yrfi hael diwael diweir^ 
haw. Yffi haul uraul gurhaw . 2,cli 
wir. iffi owiR id pridaw . y Duv 10 
maur . y duv llaur llaRiaw . y duv 
guiN guengCRt aganaw. Yn y wuy^ 
w. y duv indin digcRit . 02 devnit 13 
y diallaw. O pechu apechuis ada^ 
w. O pechaud kin brand prydeR^ 
aw. Erbin oed ydit.ydel paup oe 

F XXI 41 


Bet iny devret In devraw . Mai y i 
bv ban fv vnllv ir vn 
lie teccaw. Hid impen vn bmn eR^ 
bin ev baRnv. 02 teulv teilyghaw. 4 
Tellygdaud wafcaud. ofgozt nav 
grad new. Vy Dewis kinvllaud. 6 
Vy Devs domenvs menaud . Vy 
bardeiR. y BeiRt y uediffiaud. Vy 8 
maurhidic nen.vy perchen.vy par-' 
ch . kin tywarch . kin tywaud . 3,m 
gadu y traethu traethaud . yth vo'' 
li kin tewi tawaud. 3,c im cow.val 
ioff . a, diwaud uRth ygureic . yam 
dreic vffyldaud . Ban dywu guas 14 
duv diwarnaud attav. ir imbrav. 
ae bRiaud. Rotefew diRneid.kiN 16 

42 -^-*^^ B.B.C 

dirnaud . a bilwif obilion.ygnaud.i 
Canydoet hagen higaff. y rotion. a. 
Rothei o nebaud. Gvnaeth duv trv/ 
gaR gaRdaud. Jn evR coeth kyvo'^4 
eth . y trindaud . Ymas maeiftaud 
ymae moli duv. adwin y cotl. a. 
diwad pechaud . wid . weti . 3- diw ^ 7 
in kelv brad keli. Culuit argluit 
new nav kanmaul attad . guen -^ 
glad vad veidroli . Gwenvlit Rit lo 
RieituN voll . Gwin gaR kar. gvar 
guironet kedwi . Ny chedwif eva 
irawallen per.barauys duv.vR/ 13 
thi . am y cham nychimv ahi.guy/ 
th golev aozev cRni. Ryv duted ed-' 
mic, ogylleftic gulfc . 3. guifcvlf im^ 

B.B.C. XXII 4, 


deni . Pcriw new apis Idi, impuet i 
ychiwoeth y noethi . 3,c eil guiRth . 
awnaeth ehalaeth argluit a erglw 
y voli. Ban winnvis gochel ydeli. 4 
Sew fo2t y ffoes iti. Jnytoet arad' 
ur in eredic tiR. Herwit guir igu 
eini . y diwaud y trindaud keli . ew 7 
ae mam dinam dauN owRi. 3,gur 
guiN . Turr guir gwydi ny . a dav 
ygeiffav inguefti. ar owRif ywiN 10 
iti. agueleifle gureic amab genti . 
3,diwed tithev irolev guronet. ny^ 
thomet in gweti . Jn gueled imy/ 13 
ned hebti . yrandiR arad duv er'' 
ni . 3.r hnni y doeth digiwoeth 
gwerin . llin kain kadeithi . 16 


xxn^ B.B.C. 

Toziw anwar enwiR ev hinnl.Turr i 
keiffeid y keiffav keli. Ydiwod vn 
guRthwn gurtharab . Vrth y gvR 3 
a well. 3, gueleifte dinion diN . 
gowRi . Jn myned hebod heb dro-^ 
ffi . Gueleis ban llyuneis y llen^ 6 
tir deguch aweluch y medi. Sew 
awnaethant plant kai y VRth 
^ Medel ym chueli . Druy eirol^ 9 
ed meir mari oe gvybod guybv 
duv o heni .Yt oet inydiffrid .y. 
gidahi. yfprid glan agleindid 12 

B.B.C. AX//! ^e 

J- 1 Mwtn caer yffit ar Ian llyant. Adwin yd rotir i 
ypaup ychwant. Gogywarch de gwinet boed tev wy'' 
ant , Gwaewaur rrin. Rei adarwant . Dyv merch' 
ir.gueleiffe guir yg cvinowant . Dyv iev 4 ad cozffant . Ad oet bryger coch. ac och 
ar dant. Oet llutedic guir guinet . Dit y deuthant. 

Ac am kewin llech Vaelvy kylchuy wriwanf: 

Cuytin y can keiwin llv ocarantT" 8 


inas maon duv dafifar. Pendevic adwin adviar. 

afich heul. Agulch edar. lo 

"Xyinat maon caf vnbin teernet . Kymynad degin. 

afich heul agulich . mervin . " 

X)inafmaoN gulad adav.amdiffin duv amdanav. 

afich heul . agulich . nynhav. 14 

0)ad dodes ^moztuit armerchin march lluid. Ka^ 

deir deur am diwurn . afich heul agl'ich maelguN. 

Merddin mab Morfryn a ganodd yr hyn y 17 

fyddfcrifenedicynyr wyth ddolen fy yn canlyn 

fely testiolaetha llewelin ap Cynfric dduyn y wedd 

hon : Merddin wyllt hagr onvyllt haint so 

am Mhorfryn amau hirfraint 
Cerdd tra wamal gyfalau 
gynt goed a gant o i gau 
Jw borchell ddigyf bell gas 
46 di fedwen fel ynfyd-was. B.B.C. 

' Win y bid hi y vedwen in diffrin guy. Afirth 
* ychegev pop vn. pop dvy . Ac auit pan vo. y 
gad in ardudvy. A chimrevan biv am rid vochn^ 3 
vy. Apheleidir agaur inyganhvy. Ac edwin imoN . 
ban gluedichuy. Argueiffon gleiffon yfcawin t^ 5 
vodi . ar dillad rution in ev roti ::::■"'::::::".:: ■:::::::'::—'":•:":':::'> 
I Win y bid hi y vedwen. ympimlumon. a 
Wil ban vit ban baran eilon. Ac awil. y. 8 
freigc in lluricogion . 2Lc am gewin iraeluid bv^ 
id balawon "a mineich in vynich invarchogioN. 

@Win ybid hi y veduen yguarthaw din^ n 
vythuy . Avibid ban vo ygad in ardud-' 
wy . Ar peleidir kychuin amedrywuy . A . 
phont ar taw . ac arall ar tawuy . Ac arall 14 
amwall am dwylan gwy . Ar saer ae gunel'' 
wy. bid y env garvy . Arbenygaul mon ae . 
B.B.C. jcx/y Af? 

guledychuy . Guraget dan ygint . Guir yg kyftvy, i 
Dedwytach no mi ae harhowe . Amfer kadwal'' 
adiR. kcRt aganhwi. ©@©©^^§@^§©©©s©©@^^ 

fallen pen p y chageu. puwaur maur weir 4 
rauc enwauc in vev. Ami difgoganave rac 
pchen machrev. Jn diffrin machavuy mer^ 
hyrdit crev. gozuolet y loegyr gozgoch 
lawnev. Oian aparchellan dydau dywiev. goz-' 8 
volet ygimry g02uaur gadev. Jn amuiN kymi^ 
naud clefytaud clev. Aer o faeffon . ar onn verev. 
A guarwyaur pelre ac ev pennev. Ami dyfgogana 
fe gwir heb gev . Dyrchafaud maban inadvan 12 
y dehev. jj^ fallen pen pren hyduf glas . Pv 
waur y chagev hy ae chein wanaf . Ami dyf^ 
goganafe kad amdias . Penguern kywetyrn. is 
met y hataf . ©©g^§@g©@gs©©©^§©©©@©©©©©g© 
[ac am gylch kyminawd kymyn leaf eingyl . 
gan pendeuic eryri eri attkaf.] iS 

48 ^^'^ B.B.C. 

Hwallen pen . A pren melin . a. ^ i 

tyw in hal art . heb art inychilch^ 
in. Ami difcoganwe kadimpRydin. }n am^ 
vin ev terwin aguir duliN . Seithlog.ydeuant 4 
drof lydan Hn. ASeith cant, drof mozyozefkin. 
Orfaul ydeuant . nydant y kenhin. NamuiN. 
Seith Iledwac gwydi ev llettkintT~^§@^§©©© 7 
Wallen pen . Atyf tra run . Kymaethliff-' 
vne inybon . irbot y wun, Amyfcud . 
arwy ifguit . Am clet ar wy clun . Ac yg coed . 10 
Keliton y kifceiffe vy hun. Oian apchellan. 
pir puyllutte huN . Andaude adar cly wir 
ev hymevtuN . Teernet drof moz adav dyv . 13 
llun . Guin ev bid ve kymri oz arowuN. 

H Wallen pen atif inllanerch. yhange^ 
ft ae hargel rac riev Ryderch . amfa^ 16 
thir inybon . maon ynychilch . Oet aelav vt 
G XXV 49 

vt dulloet diheueirch . Nu nym carl guendit i 
ac nimeneirch . Oef kaf gan gwaffauc guaefP 
af Rydirch. Ryrewineif y mab aemerch. a.g^ 
hev aduc paup . pa rac nam kyueirch . 2. . 4 
guydi guendolev nep riev impeirch.Nym gogauN 
guarvy . nym goffvy gozterch . a.c igueith aryw 
derit . oet eur. Wy goathozch . Kin buyf . aelav 7 
hetiv gan eiliv eleirch. @©©^§@©@©©@©@©^§@ 
/^ fallen pen. blodev effplit . atiff inargel in 
^^% argoydit . Chuetlev agiklev ir inechrev 

.^ .^^dit . Ryffo2ri guaflauc guaeffaf . meufit 
Duyweith atheiRgueith. pedeirgueith in vn. 12 
dit. Och ieffu. nadyfifv wynihenit . Kyn dyf^ 
fod ar willave lleith mab guendit. @©©^§@i©@ 
I'VL fallen pen atiff ar Ian. afon . Jny llurv . 15 
r^Y^ ny lluit maer. inychlaer aeron . Trafu 

.^ JflLteVm puyll . waflad. am buiad inibon.a. 
Bun wen wariuf . vn weinuf vanon .Dec mli'' 18 
net adev ugein inygein anetwon . it vif inym'' 

50 JTAT** B.B.C. 

teith gan willeith agwillon. Guydi da d].' i 

ogan aditan kertozbn. Nv nevnamguy. 
guall.gan wylleith aguyllon . Nv nev nach^ 
yfcafe ergrlnaf .wynragon. Vy argluit guen^ 4 
dolev am broaryv brodozion. Guydi pozthi heint 
ahoed amcylch coed Keliton. Buyf guaf guinwy'' 
die. gan guledic gozchoztion. @©@gs©@^3@©@©@ 7 
IV fallen pen blodev effplit.atyf igwerid ag^ 
^"% hud yguit . Difgogan hwimleian hwet^ 
JL J^ il adiwit. Id lathennaur gan brid guf 
hid erwit. Rac dreigev arderchev.riev Rybit. Goz^ 
uit grat wehin din digrefit . Rac maban hvan 
heolit arweit . Saeffon ardiwreit beirt ar kin^ 13 
fallen pen apren fion attif y dan H .it. 
gel yg coed Keliton. Kid keiffeer ofer vit 
heruity baton . iny del kadwaladir oe kinadil . 16 
kadwaon.y erirtywi ateiwi affon. adyuod, 
grande o aranwinion . aguneuthur guar . o . 
willt . o gwallt hiRion . ^^^s©©©^^gg^§@^g§ 19 

B.B.C. XXVI 51 

fallen pen apren fion . attif . ydan gel yg i 
coed Keliton . Kid keiffer ofer vit he'' 
rwit . y hafon . yny del kadwaladir oe kin^ 3 
adyl.Rid Reon . Kinan inyerbin ef kychw^ 
in ar faeffon . Kimry ao2vit kein bid eudra^ 5 
gon . Kaffaud paub y teithi . llauen vi bri.bry^ 
thon . Kenhitt02 kirrn eluch . kathil hetuch 7 


OJan aparchellan. Aparchell dedwit . Nachlat 9 
dyredcir ympen minit . Clat in lie argel in arcoe^ 
dit. Rac erwif ritech hael ruyfadur fit. Ami difcogan^ 
afe a gwir uit . Hid inaber taradir rac traufev pry^ 12 
dein kimry oil inyeu kyfluit . Uyuelin y env o eiffillit 
gwinet gur digozbit . ©©©©©©©©@g©©©©^§©@g©@ »4 
52 xxvi'^ B.B.C. 

OJan aparchellan . Oet reid myned rac . 
Kinytion mo2dei bei llafaffed . Rac diuod 
erlid arnamne acingueled . Ac 02 diaghune . 3 
ny chuinune in lluted . Ami difgoganafe . rac 
ton naved. Rac vnic bariffviN gvehin dived . 
dirchafaud llogaud nid ir llettcred ynty^ 6 
mhir gurthtir aguyftuiled. inydel kin'' 
an iti oechin gueled . ny bit attco2 bith ar 

OJan aparchellan ^ythrefred. ©©^ 9 
Nyhaut kiffcaf. rac godurt y gal'' 
aryffit arnaf . Degmlinet adeu ugein 
yd po2theife poen yftruc ao2hoen yffit 12 

arnaf. Oes imi gan ieffv gaffv guaeffaf 
brenhinoet newoet achoet uchaf . Nym^ 
ad rianed oplant adaw . ar ny creddoe 15 

y dovit indit diwethaf . Yd welefe guen^' 
dolev in perthic riev . in cynull preitev opop 
eithaw . y dan vyguerid Rut nv neud araf . 18 
Pen teernet gog^et llaret mvyhaw . 
B.B.C. XXV 11 53 

Jan aparchellan oet reid gweti . i 
Rac offin pimp penaeth onoztman^ 
di . Ar pimhed in myned drof moz 3 
heli .y ozefkin iwerton tirion trewi . Ef guna-' 
haud ryuel a dififfci. a.c arfev coch . ac och in^ 
di. Ac winttuy in dihev adoant o heni . Ec . 6 
awnant ennydet arbet.Dewi. Ami difgo^ 
ganafe bid divifci . o ymlat mab a thad gu' 
lad ae guybi . a myned y loegruif diffuif trc' 9 
wi . Ac na bo guared bith y noztmandi . 

OJan aparchellan . Na uit hunauc . 
Ry dibit attamne chuetil dyfrida-' 12 

uc . Penaetheu bychein anudonauc . Meiri 
mangaled am pen keinhauc . Pan diffon. 
drof mo2 guir eneichauc . Kad meirch . y^ 15 
danunt ve. dev wynepauc . Deuwlaen . ar'^ 
54 xxvif^ . B.B.C. 

euguaev anoleithauc . CRti heb medi ymbid i 
dyhetauc . guell bet . no buhet pop yghenauc . 
Cirrn ar y guraget pedryfanhauc . A ffan-'- 3 
vont ve co2fo2ion meibon eidauc.ybit bo-' 
re taer . rac Kaer fallauc. ©©@@§©©§i©©!J3©Q@ 

OJan aparchellan . aparchell dyhet 9 

Rimdyuueid huimleian chuetyl enry"" 
uet . ami difcoganaue haf guithlonet . kyw^ 
rug brodozion brad owinet . Ban diholeR ta-' 9 
guiftil inhiR otir guinet . ^ybit feith ganllg 
oynt gan wint goglet ac inabcR clev eukin^' 

OJan aparchellan aparchell iTatlet . 12 

guin . Rymdywod huimleian chuetil 
amechrin . Pan bebillo lloegir intir ethlin. a. 
guneuthur dyganhuy dinaf degin . o g*»*»m* 15 
lloegir allyuelin aduit mab aRwarr. a»«i«» 
B.B.C. xxviit 55 

kychuin . Ban fozro deinoel mab dunaud i 
deinwin. Ad vit frangc arffo fo2t ny ofin. Jn 
aber dulaf . gvanaf guehin . Cochuet inev 3 

kylwet . yn ev kilchiN. ^^s©©©©©@g©©@^§©§ 

Oian aparchellan hoian hoiev . Bei yche^ 
nauc duv gunai . ymchuelev . Y parche s 6 
11 y ffy.wiv. bitaud mev . Ar hun y ffy •»• 
keiffed in tev . ©©©§©©©©©©^§©©©©©©@©©© 

Oian aparchellan neud dit golev . An^ 9 
daude leifadar dufifyR dyar leiffev. 
an bit ni bluitinet ahiR diev . Areiv enwir. 
edwi fRuytheu. Ac efcib. lluch lladron diffeith 12 
llannev. amyneich aobRin beich obechodev . 

Oian aparchellan llim y vinet . Kyuuely 
anwinud panelhute yozuet . Bychan 15 
awir ryderch hael heno y ar y wlet . apozth^ 
56 xxvii^ B.B.C. 

eife neithuir o anhunet . Eiri hid impen i 

clun. gan cun callet . Pibonvy imblev. blin 
wy Ryffet . Ry dibit div maur dit guith^ 3 
lonet . Kywrug glyu powis achlaf guinet . 
Achivod hirell oe hir ozwet . y SLmviu ae el-' 
in terwin guinet . Ac onymbit gan vy Ri 6 
ran trugaret . Guae wi ban imbv. trv vy 

Oian aparchan . Ny bit f diwet . 
kywun . Ban kyhuin llu aer oka^ 9 

er wyRtin . Y harduy dev kywrc 
nhin . o hil Rif aerllut . aer llyf bitin . Ban 
Uather y faeffon y kimerev trin . Guin ev . 12 
bid vy kimri . kimrvy . werin . ©©^g©^g©@§ 

Oian aparchellan.aparchell. guiN gvif. 
Nachufle hun bo2e. nachlat imprifc. is 
Rac dyuod . Riderch hael . ae cvn kyfruys . 
H xx/jr cy 

diflfeith odi- 
flfuis liN. 


Ban diifon 
llidan Uin ad 
vit imurth- 
rin ina gan 
vitinaur . a 
gozefcin pdein 
y uiron yfwein 
ar vall o luii' 
dein adyatta- 
vr . a mi 

Kin caflfael ohonautte y coed reddaud. dychuis. 

Oian aparchellan aparchell guin . Bei a 
guelud aweleis o treis degin , Nychy^ 
fcute hun bere .nychclatude brin.Ban eifte^ 4 
tho faeffon inyfarffren . achirchu opell caftell 
gollwin atuit dillad hoev agloev dullin . 6 

Oian aparchellan andaude ynaur ban 
dottint .ve. guir guinet ev gueith ma'' 
ur . llaffnev in ertirn kirn aganhaur . ^riuha' 9 
ud Ilurugev rac llim waewaur . Ami difgoga' 
naue . |)eu podaur , a luniont tegnevet onef . 
hid laur.1|ynan kadwaladir , Kymri penbal^ 12 
adir . bitaud ev kinatil aedmyccaur . jl chiurei' 
thau gulad. achiftutia gwad . allv alle drad a 
divahaur . Jin bi ni inaeth guared guy di gu^ is 
aeth. Neb ohaelonaeth nididolaur. 

eg xx/x^ B.B.C. 

Jan aparchellan.Nud glas minit ten^ i 
ev vy lien imi nyd Ilonit . lluld yv. vy 
bleit nim treit guendit . Ban diffont guir . 3 

brineirch irguaRthluit. Kimri aozuit kein 
bid ev dit.©©©©©©©©©©©©^§^§§©©©@g©©s 

OJan aparchellan. aparchellgawi. Na 6 
chlat de redkir nac ifte.wiuuy. Nac a' 
char waes. Nachar.warvy. Achuffil arotafe 
y wenabuy. Nauid ieuangc ferchauc fyberv 9 
warruy. Ami difcoganafe gueith machav 
vi. Aduit gelozaur Rut inRiv didmuy. O ki'' 
wranc y kynvrein bron renion kifrvi. Advit 12 
boze och. acoch ofuy. Arth odeheubarth adir' 
chafuy.Ryllettaud ywir ew tra thir mynvy 
Guini bid hi guendit aeharovy ban.vo pende^ 15 
wic dyued aeguledichuy. ©©©©©©©©©©©©g©© 

OJan aparchellan neud blodeu drein gozlaf keK i 
n minit eluit neud kin . Ami difcoganaue . 
kad coed lluiueiN.agelozaur rution rac ruthir 3 
Owein. Ban gunelhont meiriev datlev bichein . An-' 
udon abrad gulad veibonin. Aphan del kadualadir 
yozefcinmon dileaur faefon otirion pnydein . ZIZZ> 6 

OJan aparchellan maur erifli auit impdeinac 
nim do2bi. Ban diffon brodozion oamtiret. 
mon.yholibrithon brithuid dybi . Dirchaf/" 9 
aud dreic faud fau ifpi gurt kyuan uaran o Ian. 
teiwi . Gunahaud am dyued digiuyfci . Bit itau 
in aelau eilon indi. ©©^^§©©@©©©©©©©©©©©©©©© 12 

OJan apchellan. M02 ennyuet na bit un enhid 
y bid inunwet . Felled fon faeflbn feil kyurifD 
arbrithon haelon hil kymuyet . Ami difco^ 15 
ganaue kindiguet . Brithon dros faeflbn bRithuir 
aemet . Ac ina indaune daun gozuolet . Guidi bod 
inhiR inhuir.VRidet. ©©©@g@©©©©^§©©©©©©©©©© 18 

OJan apchellan andaude ireilon agroar ad^ 
ar kir kaerreon. Vnyfl'un aroun minit ma-' 
on y edrich drichinnauc drich ferchogion . 21 

60 -^^^ ^^-^ 

Ami difcoganawe . Kad ar yton . A chad machav^ i 
vy. Achadavon. Achad cozfmochno. Achad immon. 
Achad kyminaud. Achad caerlleon. Achad abergwc'' 
ith. Achad ieithion . Aphan vo diwed tir tCRwin. y. ^ 
eiloN. Maban dirchavaud mad . y VRythoN. @©^§©©© 
l^^oian aparchellan. Bydan avit . Moztruan. y. 
^JL»^ dyuod ac ew dybit . Mozynion moelon. guraget 
revit. Karant nypharchant eu kerenhit . Rvit ny 8 
kywruit.vrth ygilit. Efcyp agkyueith diffeith difid. 
oian aparchellan bichan brychni . Andaude 
ileis adar.myr.maurevhinni. K.ert02ion all'' n 
an heb ran teithi . K.yn fafont inydrvs tluf nyf 
deupi. Rymdivodgwyllan opell ymi. Teernet en^ 
ryuet ev kiniweti . Gwitil abrithon aromani. Ev-' 14 
vnahont dyhet adivyfci. Ac y kywenv dywiev 
divod iti . Ac imlat intaer am dvylan tywi. 16 

B.B.C. XXXI 5 1 

oian aparchellan. Bychan breichvraf . Andav i 
^ de leis adar mo2 maur eu diaf. Kertozion allan 
heb ran vrdaf. Gurthwnaud efpid abridgan gwas. 
Heb cadvid.vynepheb ran VRdaf.Ban.vo.devbro^ 4 
der.Deu itaf am tir. Megittoz oc ev guir.vy.hir alana. 
oian aparchellan . Nym dawe kingid. Oclybx 6 
, od lleis adar duwir dyar ev grid . Tenev gvallt 
vy pen. Yy Hen nyd did. Dolit vy ifcubaur . nyd ma^ 
ur. vy id. Vy crauN haw ami nid im verid . Kyn if^ 
car aduv ditaul ky vid . Ami difcoganawe kiw. 10 

goaffen bid . Gwraget heb gvilet . Gwir heb gurhid . 

Eoian aparchellan aparchell rymi . Tenev 
vy lien nid llonit ymi . Yr gueith arywderit 13 
mi nymdoabi kynduguitei awir y lavR . allyr . 
enlli . Ami dyfgoganawe gOydi henri. breenhin 
na breenhin brithwyd dybi. ban vo pont . ar . 16 

52 ' xxxi° B.B.C. 

taw. Ac arall ar ty wi . ydav y dyved ryvel iti i 
St?Y aegulich y glav . gvir ny oztywna' 
ffint vy dignav . kerwid . achivRid 3 

achav. ^Betev a tut gvitwal . ny Ileffeint heb 
ymtial. guryen. mozien . amozial . ^ Betev a,e 
gvlich kauad. gvyR.ny Ileffeint in lledrad . gwen. 6 
agurien. aguriad . Bet tedei tad awen . yg^odlr 
bRJn aren . ynydvna ton tolo . Bet dilan llan bey >* 
no . Bet keri cletifhir . ygodir hen egluis . yny 9 
diffuis graeande . tarv tozment.ymynwent 
cozbre . Bet feithenniN finhuir vann y rug 
kaerkenedir aglann . moz mauridic akinran. 12 

^n aber gvwenoli. y mae bet pRyderi . ynyterev 
tonnev tir. yg karrauc. bet gwallauc hiR . 
Bet gwalchmei ympyton. irdiliv.y dynetON. 15 
in llan padaRn bet kinon . Bet gur gwaud 

B.B.C xxxn , 6^ 

urtin in uchel tytiN. inifel gwelitin . bet Kyir' i 
on mab clytno idiN . Bet ruN mab pyd inergrid 
avon . in oervel ig gverid . bet kinon in reon rid . 3 
Piev y bet ydan y brin . bet gur gurt yg kynifc 
In. bet kinon mab clytno idiw. Bet mab oKv 
ran ygcamlan. gvydi llauer kywlavan. Bet 6 
bedwir in alld tryvan . Bet owein ab urien im 
pedryal bid . dan gverid llan moavael . in abererch 
riderch hael . Gwydi gurum achoch achein , a . 9 
gozuytaur maur minreiw . in llan helet betr- 
owein .Gwydi gweli agwaedlan . agvifcav feir^ 
ch ameirch cann . Neud ew hun bet kintilan, 12 
Piev y bet daycyftluN kig-' 
run . bet gwen ab llyuarch hen Hun. Piev y bet i 
yramgant . Ae tut mo2 agozoz nant . Bet mei^ 15 
gen mab ruN Rviw cant. Piev y bet inyrinif ae 
tut mo2 ag0202 gwrif. bet meigen mab run rvif 17 
64 xxx/j^ Wis-r- 

€(s cul y bet ac yf hir. in llurv llyauf am i 

hir. bet meigen ab run ruyw gwir. ^Ri . 
bet tri bodauc inarterchauc brin.ym pant 3 
gwinN. gvinionauc . mo2. ameilir . amada-' 
uc. Bet madauc mur egluc . yg kywluc kin^ 
hen. vir.vrien g02ev . mab y guyN. o winllyuc. 6 
Bet mozmaurhidic dieffic unben. poft kinh^- 
en kinteic. mab pedur penwetic . Bet meilir 
maluinauc faluvodauc finhvir . fiffcad fuir fo'- 9 
diauc. mab y bruiw obricheinauc. Piev.y bet 
in rid vaen ked. ae pen gan y ranvaered. bet. 
Run mab aluN diwed . Bet alun dywed yny 12 
drewred drav. ny kiliei o caled. mab meigen. 
tnad pan aned. Bet lliagvitel in argel ardu-' 
duy. dan y gvellt aegvevel. bet epint inyffriN 15 
gewel. Bet dywel mab erbin iggweftediN. 
caeav. nybitei gur.ybreinhin. divei nyochelei 17 
I 65 \ . triN. 

Bet gurgi gvychit a guindodit lev . a bet llaur i 
llu ouit . yg guarthaw guanaf jffit . €[beteu 
hir yg guanas ny chauaf ae dioef. pvy vynt vy 3 
pvy eu negef. Seulu oeth ac anoeth a dyuu y 
noeth yeu gur yeu guaf . ae ceiffo vy elated 
guanaf. Bet llvch llaueghin ar certenhin 6 
anon pen faefon fuyt erbin ny bitei drimif 
heb drin . €(beteu ynhir vynyt . yn llvyr y 
guyr lluoffit . bet gvryen gvrhyd enguavc . a 9 
llvytauc uab lliwelit . Pieu yr bet ynymynyt 
aly viafei luoffit . bet fyrnuael hael ab hy vlyt. 
Pieu ir bet hun bet eltivlch hir. ig gurthtir 12 
pennant turch . mab arthan gywlauan gyuu-' 
Ich.Bet llenn llaugyfes ydan achlef mozyny 
bu y gy wnef. gur oet hvnnv guir y neb ny ro^ 15 
tef. Bet beidauc rut yn amgant riv ly vnav. bet 
lluofcar yg keri. ac yn ryd britu bet omni. 17 
Pell y vyfci ac argut . gueryd machave ae cut. 
hirguynion byffet beidauc rut. Pell y vyfci / 19 


ac anau gueryd machave arnau . beidauc rut i 
yv hun ab emerllydau. Bet unpen opdein yn 
lleutir guynnaffed. yn yda lliv yn llychur. ig ke^ 3 
Hi uriauael bet gyrthmul. Ebet yn yftyuacheu 
ymae paup yny amheu. bet gurtheyrn gurth^ 
eneu . I^ian a ud yndiffeith cund drav otuch 6 
pen bet alltud . bet kindilic mab cozknud. 
Neumduc.i. elffin. y prowi vy^ 
ffevin vch kinran . bet ruvaun ruyvenit ran. 9 
Neumduc.i. elffin ybrowi vy martrin.vch 
kinran geffevin. Bet ruwaun Ryievanc dac'- 
riN. Bet y march . bet y guythur . bet y gug^ 12 
aun cletyfrut . anoeth bid bet y arthur . Bet 
elchwith yfgulich glav . maef meuetauc y dan^ 
av. Dyliei kynon yno y kiniav . Piev.y bet . 15 
hun . Bet hun a hun . gowin ymi . mi ae 
guN. Bet ew. bet eitew oet hun . abet eidal 
tal yfcvn . Eitew ac eidal dieffic alltudion . 18 
kanavon cylchuy drei . mekid meibon meigen 

67 i.meirchmei. 

Piev y bet hun .bet bruyno hir hydir y wir iny bro . paf i 
th ydvei nybitei fo.Piev ybet Hun nid aral guythuch ur'' 
th ervid.trathlathei ch^arthei VRthid . Bet filit dywal ine-' 3 
drywuy le. Bet llemenic inllan elvy.ygguernin bre bet eili'' 
nvy . Bet milur mireiN gnaud kelein oelav . kin bu.tav . 
ydan meiN .llachar mab run yg cIun keiN. Bet talaN. 6 
talyrth yg kinhen teir cad . kymynad pen pop nyRth . 
hyget ago2et ypiRth. Bet eliffner abner. iny winder, 
daear diarchar dibryder. pen 11 v wu tra wu y amfer. Bet 9 
gur gurth y var. llachar llyv aber duwir dyar. 
yny gvna tavue toniar . Piev ybet in y Ruyw 
yv hunnvmab Rigenev.guradigonei daaryarwev. Piev 12 

hun bet 

y bet„breint. y Rug llewin ae Uedneint . bet gur guae. yi-' 
flcarant. Piev y bet in llethir.y brin . llauer nyf guir ae^ 
gowin. Bet ycoel mab kinveliN . Bet deheveint ar eleven 15 
int awon.yggURthtir mathauarn.yftifirul kedwiRca^ 
darn . Bet aron mab diwinviN.inhir gweuN le . nydo^ 
deilew ar ladron .ny rotei gwiR yalon . Bet tawlogev . 18 
mab Uut.inytrewrud trav. mal ymae iny 
clathei caffei but . Piev ybet ar Ian ryddnant . Run.y. 20 


env radev keucant. Ri oet ew. Riogan aegvant. Oet ef i 
kyfniflen yholi galanaf.guawRut grut aten. Schen bv 
ir but bet bradwen. Piev y bet pedrival. ae pedwaR 3 
mein amy tal. bet madauc marchauc dywal . En eiwori'' 
it elvit tin y maegurhyduf hir. lleas paup pan rydig^ 
hir.Etri bet yg kewin kelvi.awen ae divaud imi .bet 6 
kinon garv y duyael . bet kinvael .bet kinveli . Bet llv/ 
id lledneif. ig kemeif tir. kin boed hir tuw y eif. dygir^ 
chei tarv trin ino treif . Bet fiauN fyberv inhirerv. 9 
minit .yrug y gverid aederv . chuerthinauc braucbrid^ 
chuerv. Piev y bet iny clidur. tra wu ny bv eitilur . 
bet ebediv am maelur . Piev y bet iny rallt . trav . 12 
gelin y lauer y lav. tarv trin trugaret itav. [Y Beddeu . 
yny moiua yf bychan ay haelewy: ymae fanauc 
fyberw vun . y mae run ryuel afwy . y mae earrwen 15 
verch hennin ymae lledin allywy. Bed hennin 
henben yn aelwyt dinozben . bed airgwl yndyuet 
yn ryt gynan gyho2et . Gogyuarch pob diara pi-- 18 
eu yr vedg02 yfly yma. bed einyavn ab cunedda 
cwl ym p2ydein y ddiua . Pieu yr bed yny maef 
mawr . balch y law ar y lafnawr.*' bed beli ab benlli 21 

.69 S^'^""] 

I^^ffoffjon . floe tl) accant . 

tantreghif wiguifc amhoen . oa.mryuef neufad^ i 
waen .Nymgunaho douit duy poen . Ny gvnaho 
Dowit duypoen ardin amydic aeawar. Direid new.Direid 3 
daear. Daearaul pechodaul imyoel a duv . a devveint . 
duhuned.a gothuy crift nachifced. Nachifced mab.diN. 
yr dioteiveint mab duv . a duhuned pilgeint . ew keifif 6 
new achirreiveint . Kyrreiweint ageifif agoffaho duv 
ac niftirmycco. anew ynof y tragh. Otreinc mab din heb 
imdiwin aduv. am awnel opechaud . ny mad aeth eneid iny 9 
gnaud . Ny naud ydireid imioli aduv. in erbin dit kynhi. 
nythebic drud y treghi. Cantreghif. (Elattl) ajjaitt. 

eb coffav duv daun diffrid gwirion ac egilion hevid 12 
(goimot o cam fyberwid . guae aegunel heb kel imbit. 
Nycharaw alaw ol difod breffuil.pop preffent yf haw^ 14 
od. Din wuyf itav. eitavclod y duv goiev im goivod. @©@g© 


Caraw voli pedyr avedir tagtew iaun. aepelltauN. 
ygid acew im pop ieith obeith atew.llara cloduaur.hael. 
pozthaur new. Y duv y harchaw arch Roti argluit . yn 
argledir eloy.imeneid rac y poeni. Naut oil yrholl merthy^ 
ri. Yduvyharchaw arch aton dihev rac poenev gelinion.y. 
meid.opleid cofion.naut meir gwiri argueriton. Yduv . y. 
harchaw arch hewid kywiauN can dichauN vyniffrid.y. 
meneid rac poenenbid naut criftonogion.ybid. Yduv. y. 
harchaw arch giwreint breffwil inpriflur pop pilgeint . 
ymeneid rac poein oweint .naut duire y rolre . 
feint. Heb coffav duv. ©crcint til' trblN. 

Bac gereint gelin kyftut . y gueleife 
meirch can crimrut.a.gwidygaurgarvachlut. 
ivac gereint gelin dihad . gueleife meirch crimr^ 
ut o kad . a,guydi gaurgaru puyllad . IVac gereint ge^ 



lin o2mes.gueleif meirch can eucrees. a.guydi gaurga-' i 
rv achles. En llogbozth ygueleife vitheint . agelozaur 
mvy nomeint .aguir rut rac ruthir gereint .Enllc 3 
gbozthygueleifegiminad. guirigrid aguaed am iad.rac 
gereint vaur mab y tad . En llogpo2th gueleife gotto-' 
ev. aguir nygilint rac gvaev. acyved gviN oguydir glo^ 6 
ev.En llogpo2th y gueleife arwev guir.aguyar in din^ 
ev. agvydi gaur garv atnev . Enllogpo2th ygueleife . y 
arthur guir deur kymynint adur. ameraudur llyw^ 9 
iaudir llawur. Enllogpozth y llaf y gereint . guir . 

deur oodir diwneint . a chin rillethid ve.Ua'" 
tyffent . Oet re rereint dan vo2tuid gereTt 12 
garhirion graun guenith . Rution ruthir erir^ 
ion blith. Oet re rerent dan vo2tuid gereint . garhirio 
graun aebv. Rution ruthir eriron dv. Oet re rereint 15 
danmo2tuid gereint .garhirion graun boloch. Rution 
ruthir eriron coch . Oet re rereint dan moztuid gereint 17 


garhirion graun wehin. Rution ruthir eririon gviN. i 
Oet rerereint dan voztuid gereint . garhirion grat 
hit . turuf goteith ar diffeith mynit . Oet re rereint . 3 
dan V02tuid gereint garhirion gran anchvant. Blaur 
blaen euraun inariant. Oet rerereint dan moztuid. s 
gereint. garhirion.graun adaf. Rution ruthir eryrion 
glas . Oet re rereint dan moztuid gereint . garhiri^ 
on graun eu buyd . Rution ruthir eririon livid. 8 

Ban aned gereint oet agozed pirth new. rotei crift 
aarched prid mirein prydein wogoned. 10 

uv inkymhozth innenth inpozth incanho'- 
Rthuy . XJ valch teeim dinaf unbin degiN . 12 
adwi. F^ywel welmoz. kimry ozoz kyghoz arvy. 
'SerruiN trochiad. tozwoet ueitad vabgozonvy. 
Godrut y var. gurt intrydar gvae rycothvy . Pe^ 15 
dridauc heul. Muyhaw y treul.vchel kylchwy. 
K xxxvn 73 

Tir l)Kycheinauc.(ly iauN iViud.p.'mi) ae 
gwclhvy.^^J cv Kydadlas amluitli cur/ 
gvaf cLiaflyviiy. Cr^l^ anchvant.gucnt. 
gulad niozgant.Dylfriii inynvy.Gv^4 
liir pcnuiN yftradvi hRiN.Tywin.wa/ 
uvy. Dyucd dvycauN . KcrcdiciauN.kif'' 
laiiN owLiy. S^ 7 
ardudvy. 3. lleiN drav. ac abcrffrav. a. 
dyganlwy. Rofrowynniauc. ran ardcr-' 
chauc. Kugil yg goztiiy.Tcgigilotal . lo 
CdcirnauN ial, arial aulvy. Ryucl cb/ 
Kiiit . a diffriN cluit . 3.nant convy . » 
Powis cnwauc . 3,tliyiicilauc ac avo 13 

*4 xxxvii* B.B.C 

mvj'. Dyffrin hawrcn.Kcri'' 
vcn vcnvy. Clwad hiKtllt. Maclcnit a 
gucll.pcll y trcithvJ'.Tcir rac 
Tcir inis . 3,r tramozdvj' . H^ucl giil ^ 
edic.vt ygiiylllvy. 5 
iharkivcir ar pcnnic pcnn . o . 
plant ncvuj'. Gozuir cdwiN.gur^ 
.ml hi' ' iilnN.dilywiN dcnvy.Drcic 
.'in;;< kLiiiI turvf mozoct maur. Mcint 
achupvy. Rywifcuif llaur am </ v</{^^ 
aur cur amacrvy, Bcinachancd.y. rr 
tycrnct anhvyct Rvy. Or fan 1 pcnn/ 
aeth ri^^f-ir inaclli. Hrvacth camrvy, ij 

B,B,C xxxy/ii 7 « 


' 3 

Hydir y kymhell . hywel env opell 
Guell yv noc vy , DipRyderant d 
yfcarant .rac . y dibvy . Dihev utu 
nt. trallaud kyftut. a chur kyftvy. 
GweriN werid . gwedy clevid crid 5 
achymvy. Ny dav metic hid ozph/ 
en bid. hid ynottvy. Hyuel haelaf. 
vaureilaffaw gozefcynhvy. Cap 8 
faud hyuel uRth y hoewet . wy Ry/ 
buchvy. Vy rypuched y colowin 10 
ked. clod pedrydant. Ryuel dywal 
vrien haval.arial vytheint.Gurifc 12 
gueilgi dowyn.kyvid hehowin colofyn 

76 xxxviti^ B.B.C. 

milcant . IlugiRn deudo2 . lluoet agoz. gur. i 
bango2 breint. Pryduf pchen podaur ben. pen 
pop kinweint. Go2ev breenhinor gollewiN . 3 
hid in llundein . Haelaw lariaw . levaf teccaf . 
o adaw plant . Gwerlig haelaw haeton vaut 5 

(J j vaton. 

veitaton^vetveint . Gozuir menic mur gwerenic 
gurhid gozmant . Terruin am tir . Ri reith kyw^ 
ir. ohil mo2gant . Omo2ccanhvc oRieinvc radev 8 
rvytheint.Oteernon kywrid leon. galon reibeint. 
vn vid veneid yellyfpp bid. gelleift pozthant. Ho^ 
ethil hir ac ew . 3. chein y atew trvi aRtuniant . 
vrten arnav . Rad ac anaw. affav aphlantr: 12 

B.B.C. XX XIX 77 


ffuynaw naut duv diamehv y dauN ae donyauc 
wiffinnhev.ardy guir erir aerev. ar dygulad 
•gliledic dehev. cLfluinaf archafeirchadym 
gelwir . naut kyuir kygwaftad. ar dydriffev aer . 4 didriffaur gvaur gwenvlad. ^ffuin^ 
aw archaw archvaurypiw apis new allaur.Na^ 
ut rac dyuar car kertaur . ardypiRth ar dipozth'' 7 
aur. ipCfiuinaf naut haut haelon deheuparth 
diheupozth kertozion . athturuf othtarianogion. 
athtozyf oth teern meibon . ^ffuinaf y chnaut. 10 
nacheluch ychpozth . can pthin attreguch . goftec 
wir His gofteguch . goftec beirt bart aglywuch. 
^ffuinaf Kaut naut haelvonet.wozffet.nyth 13 
ozffeiw teernet. ardy tozif cozyf kywriffet ardy 
78 xxxi}^ B.B.C. 

teulu teilug met. MetcuiN evgwiraud met kirn i 
aegwallav. ae gwellig ineurdirn. agloev y ved in 
edirn. aglivdeur. aglev teeirn. Teernweilch pdein 3 
prydaw ych priwgert .ych pwclod adigaw. ych . 
bart ych beiRnad vytaw. ych po2th pthin yv ataf. 

^ ttep aganaw ar canhuyw vy argluit.ergliv. wi, 6 
can dothuif. lleiffauN lliw llev gliv glevrvit. llaeffa 
divar di bart wif. Viw kertaurjm ruw . Ruifc 
mozkimlaut gurt . Ruiffirt kirt kert . vahaut . af^- 9 
fuinafferv herv hirvlaut . affuinaf ar wut naw . 
naut. 3.ffuinaw naut duv diamhev.y dauN. 

[© vom kyd kerdd.goned kydimyteith. bid pyrfe. 12 
yth. igueithrd. kyifun ymmared drvi fit a. 
crevit . acred. Kyd credwit douit. drvi kereir 14 
hyt . fit . maur penyd . meith peunyt . eneid 
pan im keuerchyt . padivet aebet ambit. 16 

BBC. XL 79 

V dyuarch du dycapan . du dy 
'pen du duhunan.iadu aetiyf^ 
colan. Mi ifcolan yfcolheic yP 
cawinypuill ifcodic.guae ny baut a 4 
gaut guledlc. Olofcl ecluif. allat bu^ 
ch ifcol.allyviR rod y voti. vy penhid. 
yftrum kynhi. Creaudir y creadurev. 
pthldev muyhaw. kyrraw de imi vy 8 
gev. ath vradafte am tuyllaf ynnev. 
Bluytin llauN im rydoded.ym. 10 
bango2 ar paul cozed. Edrlchdepo^ 
en Imy gan mo2 pryued. Bei yf 
cuypuN ar vn . mo2 amluc guint. 13 
y vlaen bRic guit fallum . Erav 
vneuthume bith nyf gunauN. 15 

C reaudir y creaduriev pthidev muyhaw . matev im vy . 
gev.Athuradafte am tuyllaf ynheu. Bluytin llaun ymry^ 
doded.ymbangozar paul cozed. edrichdepoenimiganmoz 
K XLi pryued. 


yntaw geir adywedaw. y boze ban 
kyuodaw, croes crift inwiffc ym 
danaw. ^Rhelv uyren yguYcav 3 
hetiu . un trev a glyuaw . nid ew wy 
duu nifcredaw. Gulfcaw ymdanaw 
inberth.Ny credaw coel canyd kerth 6 
y gur am creuyfe am ncRth . Ymae 
vlmrid andebed . arowuN ar mo2 wy^ 
ned , etyl butic bitaud ked . Ymae 9 
vymrid ar kighoz. arowun myned. 
armo2. etyl butic bytaud I02. Dyrch^ 
euid bran yhafgell.arowun myned. 12 
impell . etyl butic bitaud guell . Dyr^ 
cheuid bran y hadein . S-rowuN myn^ 
ed Ruvein.etil butic bytaud keiN. 15 

82 xLfi B.B.C. 


Yftarnde wineu fruin guiN.Redech, i 
hiraethauc rauN rIn . Ren new . oet 
Reid duu genhiN. YftaRnde winev 3 
biRR y blev. Ruit ygniw Rygig. ot-^ 
ew . mynyd vo truiN. yd uit trev,©@a 

"P^ftaRnde wineu HIr y neid . Ruit yg 6 
nyw Rygig. woteid . ny lut ar lev 
trev direid . ©rum kyduod daeaR . 
tev deil dRis . chuerv vueliN met' 9 
melif. Ren new Ruitade vyneges. 

O eiffillit guledic . 3,gueith wtic . wof 1 1 
prid . a phedir pen pop ieith . SanP 
freid fuynade inimdeith . IJeul eir^ 
ioled arouned argluit . crift kely . 
colowiN ked . Dywyccviff wympe^ 15 

f^ oirwin pifc tuth eleirch tonn . Trybelid areith . 
Duv y din a denvin kedimdeith . Gozwin blaen p^ 
theu . kein gywrev adar. hir dit bann cogev.Tru^ 
gar dafifar duv ozev . xui 83 

chaud am gueithred . @@@gs@@@@@Q&g@@@@ 

QJ aegwinneif y offereid bid . ae 
hefgip aehigneid ba beth ozev 
rac eneid . Pader a buyeld a bendic^ 
eid creto . ae canho rac eneid . hid wra^ 
ud gojeu goztywneid . Yfcythrich fo2t 
a delhich ti . a llunhich tagneuet .ny^ 
thvi tranc aRtrugaret . Ro vyd.y. 8 
newyauc . a dillad ynoeth . a chenich 
golychuid . o kyuil dieuil dothuid . 
Syberu afegur dolur an eu knaud . 1 1 
guerth myned drof ueffur. yftir nith^ 
iau ny bo puR. Ryhun a Ryuetuda^^ 
ud . a Riwiraud o vet . a Rietillter. o. 
gynaud . llyna chuec chuerv eRbin . 15 

g. A-i//" B.B.C. 

braud . p^nudon am tir. a brad ar'^ 
gluid . a diuanv llaugar. dit braud 2 
bitaud ediwar . O kyuodi pilgeint 
adeueint duhunau . ac ymeltunav. 4 
aR Seint . id keiff . pop criftaun . kyr^ 

reiueint . c:::::::::^:::::::::::::::":::::::;;::;:::;::::::: 6 

GVledic arbennic CRbin at^ 
tad . Erbarch o kyuarch . o. 
kyuaenad . Ynigabll bara^ 9 
bil ar y parad . Vy kert ith kirpui'^ 
11. kanuill kangulad . Can vid pRi^ 
odaur . canuid meidrad maur . cauid 
kigho2aur guaur goleuad . Canuid 13 
bron proffuid. canuid inad. canuid 
Riev had . canuid . Rotiad . Canuid . 

B.B.C. xLiii ge 


athro Im. namethryad. oth. vann.oth va 
ran.oth virein gulad . Namditaul oth. 2 
wt .vt echeiad. Nam gwellic ymplic im^ 
pled dirad . Nam gollug oth lav. gualluf 
trewad. Nam ellug ga llu du digarad. 5 
wledlc arbennic . Ban geneife . o . 

honaud . Nid oweR traethaud . aRa^ 

/I - 

tretheif. Nid eiffev.wy kerd.yg kein ew^ 
reis.Nid eiffywed^ men y keweis.Nid ew 
ym crevis dews diffleis.yR guneuthuR. 10 
amhuill na thuill. Na threis. Nid ew du^ 
hunaur ahandeneif. Nid ew RotiR new. 12 
ir neb nvy keis. Nid Rvy oawit awenyt 
eif. Nid Rvy oobruy aobRyneif . Nid po2 
thi Ryuc ryuegeif im bron. Nid pozthi pen 

85 . xLui^ B.B.C. 




id. Ry vetyleif. Jnadaud wy Ren Rydamv^ 
neis.Rydid imeneid.Reid ryiole's, 2 

|endith y wenwas.iR dec diyrnas. 
brelfc ton.bron ehalaeth. Duv.4 
|y env Innvfin impop ieith. Dylllt 
enweir McIr rymath. Mad dev-^ 
thofte yg cozffolaeth . llyna mab gowRi 7 
gobeith. Adylivaf idas y Ieith. Bu drvi. 
vewil . athuyllvRiaeth . in hudaul gvar 
guaffanaeth yargluit . Bu hywit . ac . 10 
nybu doeth.Ac hid vraud.ny vnyaR^ 
vaeth . Kyffei bart pridit . 3,r yffit in 
eluit .2ir hallt arechuit . 3,r graean. 13 
ar mir . ar fir fyweditiaeth . Beirnad 
Rodiad llara llau fraeth. Mui y dinwaP 

B.B.C. xL/y 87 

fune gunaune eddwaeth. Kyuoethev. rI. i 

Nifrdraeth. Maur duv hetiv.moli dyvR^ 

/Pllendith nautozyw new. [Tdaaeth. 3 

ir keluit creaudir. Kyuothauc duu 

^wdouit . Apis lleuveR lleuenit . hael . 

vynveR heul indit . Eil kanuill crlftauN. 6 

a leuich uch elgauN. ILocr vilioet vilenh^ 

it. Athrydit Ryuet.yv merweRit moz.Cv 

Digonefper- thrcia.cud echwit. Cvda.cvd ymda.Cv. 9 

Lw.pedwerit ... . f-x T • l -kt i • 

Ryvet.Redec treigiLCvthrcwna. Pa hid.a.Nev cudvit. 


echwit. Ypen y feith mlinet. y due Ren y Riffet . ydad ^ 
wet.ynyduit.Jolune ara beir.kyvoethauc 12 
duu vab meiR.aoif newac eluit . Pan deuth^ 


ofte y paffc diwedit . ovffern . awu ran iti. 14 
bv Rit. Ren new Ryphrinomne digerenhit. 

gg xuv^ B.B.C. 

J p^ vm awel Hum briN . anhaut caffael did. 
llicrid Rid reuhid llin. RyfelwguraRvnconiN. 
©on trathon toid tu tir. go2uchel guaetev rac 
bron banev bre breit allan 02feulr. Oer lie, 
lluch rac brythuch gaeaw. crin caun calaw 5 
truck, kedic awel. coed inlbluch. Oerguely 
piffcaud ygkiffcaud iacN. cul hit caun bary^ 
whaud . birr diuedit guit gvyrhaud . Ottid 8 
eiry eiry guin y cnes. nida kedwir oe neges. 
oer llinnev eu llyu heb tes. Ottid eiry guiN . 10 
aren. fegur yfcuid ar ifcuit hen. Ry uaur guTt 
reuhid dien . Ottid eiry ar wanthaw reo. goP 
gupid gint blaen guit tev. kadir yfcuid ar yP 
keduirycad.mi nidaw.anawnimgad^^^ 




Ottid eiry odv Riv.karcharaur gozuit cul i 
biv. nid annuyd hawdit hetiv. Ottid eiry. 
guin go202 mynit. Hum guit Hog ar mo2. mec 
cidHvwyrHauerkygho2. ^urtirnamcirn. 4 
ciRn am cIuIr.ocr HyRi^ Huchedic auiR blr 
diwedit blaen gvitgvIr.Genin igogaur 
guan gaur adar. dit diuHth . kyfful/ 7 
win kewin bRin coch gwaur. GueniN igodo. 
oeragdo rid. reuid rev pan vo. ir nep goleith. 
Heith dyppo. Guenin igkeithiv gwirtHv mo2 
cRin calaw caled riv. oer divHt. yR eluit 
hetiv. ©©©©©Gueni ig cHdur rac gulyburi2 
gaeaw. glafcunHeitcevewur. dricweuetHyv- 
rder ar guR. IJir nof Hum roOluid Riv. glaf 
glan guilan in emRiv. garv mir glau auit het^ 


go XLV^ B.B.C. • 

jSlch guint guliphlnt.kinuetlauc diffrint. 
oer callet cul hit llywin awon hinon uit. 2 
Driccin imynit avonit igniw. gullchid lliw 
llaur trewit . neud guellgi gueled ir eluit . 4 
Nid vid ifcolheic.nid vid eleic unben. nyth 
eluir in dit reid. och gindllic. nabuoft gureic. 
Kirchid carv crum tal cum did. brluhid . ia. 
brooet Hum . Ry dieigc glev olauer trum . 8 
]3ronureith breith bron.Breithbron bron 
ureith.Briuhid talglan.GangaRn carv cul 
grum cam.Gozuchel awel guaet.vann.breit 
gulrozfeuirallan. KalangaeawguRimgo2/ 
dugo2blaengruc.go2euynauc ton moz.bir 
dit deruhid ych kigho2. Okifcaud yfcuid ac 
aral gozuit . aguir deur diarchar . tec nof . y. 

B.B.C. XLVi^ ft'j- 

ffiffccau efcaR. Kinteic guint crellum coed, i 
crin cauncaRu ifcun.pelif enuiRpatirhun. 
Kin ottel eiRy hidinaRuul melin.nimgu^ 
naei aRtu awiRtul.towIffune Iv y bRiN.ty'^ 
tul.Can medRit mo2Ruit,y Rodwit aRid 5 
aRiv eiRy adiguit .pelis pan vid kyvaR/ 
wit.NimgunapRydeRimpRldein heno 
kyRchu bro pRiw uchei.yar can kanliN 8 
oweiN.Kin imtuiN aRiweu ac yfcuid aR'' 
nad. diffreidad kad kynuid.pelif pa tir. 10 
ythuaguid. Ygur aRithao duv. o Rigae^ 
th carchar. Rut ypaR openaeth oweiN 12 
regedamRyvaeth. Can ethiv Ruiw in. 
Rodwut iwcRit ateulu na fouch.guydi. H 
met meuil na vynuch . Yboze gan las y 

g2 XLvf" B.B.C. 

dit ban kirchuld mug maur treuit. nyd i 
oet uagaud meiRch mechit . Nim guna 
lleuenit Had. 02 chuedeu amdiallad. me/ 
chit gologuit arnad. KyuaRuuan amca^ 
vall.kelein aRuiaRaR wall kywranc Run 
aR Drud aRall . Caniffonoglon mugc. 6 
a lataut mechit .dRuduaf nif amgiffre^ 
dit . piw new peifte imi dyuit . Gwir . 8 
igrid. Rid Rewitto2 . oeruelauc tonn. bRi-^ 
th bron mo2. Ren Rothid. Duvin.kighoz. 
Mechit mab llywaRch. dihawaRch vn'^ 
ben . glvyftec llenn lliw alaRch . kyntaw. 
affruiNcluymus maRch . 13 

B.B.C. XLVii 


Ba, gur yv y pozthaur. Gleuluid i 
gauaeluaur. Pa gur aegouiN . 
ciivtiiur.achei guiN.Pa imda genhid . 3 
edi. Mi aeguadi. athi aegueli. Vythnel 
nt elel. affivyon ell tRi . Mabon am myd 
ron. guaf uthir pen dragon. Kyfceint . 7 
mab. Banon. A guiN godybRion . Oet 
RiNn vy gueiffon in amuiN ev detvoN. 9 
Manawidan ab llyr . oet duifycufil. 
Neuftuc manauid eif tull o trywRuid. n 
a mabon am melld . maglei guaed ar 
guelld. Ac anguas edeinauc . a lluch. 13 
llauynnauc . Oetin diffreidauc ar ei^ 
din cyminauc . Argluit ae llochei my'' 

XLVif' B.B.C. 



nel ymtiwygei . kel aeheiriolel.traella^ i 
theipoptri. Pan colled kelli.caffad cuek 
li. Afeirolei kei hid trae kymynhel. Ar^ 
thur ced huaRhei.yguaed gouerei. Jn 
neuat awarnach In imlat ew agura^ 5 
ch. Ew aguant pen palach.Inatodev. 
diffethach . ym minit eidiN amuc . a. 7 
chinbin. Pop cant id cuitin. Id cvltm. 
pop cant . rac beduir bedrydant . Ar 
traethev trywruld . In arnvm agarv/ 10 
luld- Oet guychir y annuyd . o clety^ 
w ac yfcuid . Oet guaget bragat vr^ 
th .kel ig kad . Oet cletyw ighad . oe 13 
lav digulftlad . Oet hynelw guaftad ar 
lleg ar lies gulad , Beduir . a Bridlav. 15 

B.B.C. XLVllI gr 

Nau cant guarandau . chuechantyeirth^ 
au.atalei yoztlnav. Gueiffon ambuyint 
oet guell banuitint. Rac Riev emRcis. gue^ 
leife . Kei aR urif . Preltev gozthowif . oet 4 
gur hir in ewnis . Oet trum y dial . oet . 
toft y cynial . Pan yuei owual yueiuR^ 
th peduaR.ygkad pandelhei.VRthcant 7 
idlathei . Nybei duv aedigonhei. Oet 
diheitaghev kei . Kei guiN allachev.di^ 
gonint we kadev.kin gloes glaf veRev. 10 
yguaRthaw yftaw inguN . Kei aguant 
nav guiton . Kei wiN aaeth von y dileiN 
lleuon . yifcuid oet mynud eRbiN oath 13 
paluc. Pan gogiueirch tud. Puyguant 
cath paluc . Nau ugein kinlluc . a cuyt^ 
ei iny buyd. Nau ugein kinran . a . 16 

q5 XLvnt' B.B.C. 

iVL einoeth kiclev lew held . pen jrethin pell ban 

i^ "" ? ^ 

dygneid . ony lochir llaur ny ffeid . | dauc. S' ^ °' 

an if coegauc yffi mozeurauc ahin is 3 ^* »* ? 

emil His guallauc.minnev bitawgolv^ p^ p "^ 

BCb ^ 
oed emendiceid ir guit . attinvif y ligad. in n -• 

y wit . gwallauc ab lleinauc aRgluit.©@©@ 6 h" S 

oed emendiceid irguit dv.attinnuify ligad "§ ~ 

£: cfc? 

oe ttv. guallauc ab lleinnauc pen llv.©©^ | Ei- 

-. 5* 

13 oed emendiceid iR guit guenn. attinvif y 9 p „. 

tj* -P 

ligad oepenn.g.ab lleinnauc unbew.©©^ g jft 

B oed emendiceid ir guit glas . attinnwif y 2- < 

ligad inguaf.g.mab lleynnauc VRtas. 12 Jr g 

'arv trin anvidin blaut arbenic 3" p_ 

llu Hid anhaut dinam eiroes am 'S ° 

oes naut.Yg^" gur g^Rt y kinnit . /^^ In 

/ I ^^ I =B! 
arbennic llv Hid owit .athvit naut \ \%J Ic 

^aJ \ ^^ 'P 

M ^i/-v ro"^ canyferchit . ^»Cj A //^^ 

C anif naut im arotit.moz vcRth ythog^ i 

yuechit . guaur llv py dv pandoit .©©© 
B an deuaw o kad achiminad maur ac 

aeflaur in aghad . briuint penaur pel'' 4 
J\ th kiuarchaw hv yfcun gur . ae ifcuid 

in aghen . pebir gur pan iv dyechen .@© 
C aringrun wi march kad trablut . hud 7 

im gelwire guin mab nud . gozterch cre^ 

urdilad merch lut . ©©©©©©©©©©©©©©© 
C anifti guin ' gur kiwiR. racod ny ryim^ 10 

gelir .minnev guitnev garanhir . ©©©©© 
N ini gade gan kyulauaret ahi . urthifru^ 12 

in yd wet . dywrif im trum tawuy anet . 
jVJ id ytawue neffaw alawaraw uRthid.nam-' 

vin y tawue eithaw . eriR mo2 terruin trei'" 

aw . Yfcithreid vy modruy euR kywruy 16 
g8 -^^i^-** B.B.C. 

cann . y gan wyauaRvy. gueleif aer rac i 
kaer wantvy. Rac mantvy llv awelei 
aeffaur brihuid. tozrhid eif . mygedaul . 3 
kein adygei treif . Gwin ab nut but . 
bitinaur . kint y fiRthei kadoet rac car^ 
netaur dy bruyn bRiw y laur. 6 
Yftec vy ki ac iftrun. ac yffew . oaev 02 cvn. 
Do2march oet hunnv afv y maelguN . 
D 02ma»ch truinnut ba ffillit annaw can^ 9 
iflamgififredit . dy gruidiR ar wibir win^ 
it . Mi awum iny lie lias guendolev . 
mab keidav colowin keRtev . ban ryeR^ 12 
hint brein ar crev. Mi awum inlle 11a 
bran, mab ywerit clod lydan.ban ryer^ 
int breiN gaRthan . Mi awum lie llaf 15 
llachev mab aRthur uthiR ig keRtev. 

B.B.C. i gg 

ban ryreint brein ar crev. Mi awum lie llaf i 
meuric . mab karreian clod edmic . ban ryreelt 
brein ar cic . Ny buum lie llaf gwallauc mab 3 
goholheth teithiauc . attwod lloegir mab lie 
ynnac . Mi awum lie lias milvir pridein . 
02 duyrein ir goglet . Mi. wi . wiw. vintev. y . 6 
bet. Mi awum He lias milguir bridein 02 
duyrein ir dehev . Mi. wi. wiv . vintev yaghev. 
yd karhwiue mo2va , caffaaue mo2 . pyr 9 
toei wanec carrec camhur . glev diwal 
hygaR hael huyfcur . yfcinvaen beiRt bit bu' 
tic clydur. Go2uc clod heiliN benffic awiRtuI. 
hid braud parahaud y eRtiwul. Ty yd car^ 13 
huiwe mo2ua caffaaue ton . Digones ton treif 
oer cleis y ron . Ew kuynhiw iny wuiw 1 her^' 
vit Hon. Gweith heinyw golchiw aRwin-' 16 
100 i" B.B.C 

vywron . kid y lleinv keudaud nif beirv caloN. i 
a.c inllvrv kyheic kimod yroN. Yflim edivar 
oe negeffev . ban WRiffuis pebRur pell y aghev. 3 
glev diwal kyweithit yd vam indev .Menic it 
ERwet duwiR dalennev. ©^^3©©®©©©©©©©©©© 
Fechid diRiftan othiwod.mi nythcRvill imdj^ 6 
od . ompaRth gueRtheifle march iRod. ©©©^^ 
Dial kyheic amoet blis . am y kywrev ymelis . 
och co2r dy fozr de ymi bv ewnis . ©©©©©©©©© 9 
Archauc agirch ydinaf aecuNgwiw^ 
ion ae ciRn bras , nythadwaen . mi ry' 
thwelas . Marchauc akirch ir aber. 12 
yar march cadarn kad fer.Dabregen^ 
hiw nym gwatter . Mi nyd awinainaur.go" 
tev gueithygodriccaur.elhid bendith new. a. 15 
llaur . Y gur nim guelaf beunit . y tebic ygur' 

B.B.C. Lt lOI 

deduit .ba hid eidy aphandoit . Ban deuaw i 
o caer feon oimlat ac itewon. itaw caer lev 
agwidion. Dabrede genhiw ir dinaf athu^ 3 
it met ara phellas . ac eur coeth ar diwanaf . 
Mi nydadwaen ygurhy ametev tan agveli. 
tec achuec ydiwedi . Dabre genhiw imtino 6 
athuit guiw gozyfgelho? . Vgnach yw.vyheno 
mab mydno. Vgnach bendith ithozffet athvo 
Rad acenRydet. talieffin viw inhev talaw 9 
itti dygulet . Talieffin penhaw 02guir. 
beitad yg keRt kyuengiR . trie ima hid dy v 
merchT Vgnach mvihaw y alaw. athvo. 12 
rad ygulad pennhaw. ny haetaw kabil ny 
thrigiaw . 14 

102 i/* B.B.C. 

a^arunali apatiatic mab Sl^arctiut.lipntclb 
Oduryw aglyuaw. pliitmaucaecont. 

ar claur maelenit . Mur eluit 
eluan gaur.Teulv madauc mad an^ 
haur. Mai teulv. bann benlli gauR. 
Goduryw aglyuaw. ar claur lei'' 6 
thon hiR . hydir y wir ar faeffon . 
Teulv madauc mur galon.Mal tur^ 
uw. tozmenhoet klnoN. Goduryw 9 
a glivaw. Godo2 drein waewaur gu^ 
ae loeglr in dit keiN . Teulv madauc 
muR prydeiN . yn lluithauc . in llith-^ 
iav BreiN . GoduRyw agliuaw . ar 13 
claur llavur . rei . Ryuelclod diffegur. 
Teulv madauc mur eglur. Mai gavr 
to2yw teulu arthur. Goduryw agly^ 
aw. ar claur vagv glyv. gloev mada^ 

B.B.C. Lii 

byelwu . Trinva kyva kinytu . Trydit tri di-^ 
weir teulv. St^arunaH Sl^atiauc fir Sl^arrtut. 2 
ywarchaw Im rI. Rad wobeith . Kyvv' 
archaw kywercheife canwelth.Ypro^ 
wi prydv. pwleith eurgeRt .ymaR-' 
glult kedymtelth. Ycvlnavmadauc. met^ 
welth yalar. aealon ympopIeith.Dozyf'" 
cozyfcvid canhimteith . Tarlan In aerwan . 
in evR welth. Turuw grucyg gotucgotelth. 
Tarlw efcar ylfculd In dllelth . Rwy . 10 
mmt kyRt . keRtozIon . wobeith . Rut . 
dilut dlletyw kedlmtelth . Ry gelwld . 
madauc . kin noe lelth . Ruld galon . y. 13 
voglon dIffelth.RvIt attaw attep vygc 
belth . RIt . wlffcoet . weffgviN canhlmte^ 
ith . Rut onglr . Bran vab lllr lledlelth.i6 

104 i-if B.B.C. 


Hil teirn in 

Ruit y clod includav anrelth. Rvtwo^ i 

auc vaon ny olelth. Rad waftad gwif-^ 

don canhlmtelth° Ilawin aryrad.igkad # 

IS cvnlleitlf . llav efcud. dan ifcvd calchw^ ^^'" f!\'^ 


reith. llev powif peues diobeith! Haul 5 dth. 
owIn . gur ny miNN mabweith . Hvil yf 
cvn yfcvid pedeirieitlf! Hael madauc. 7 

heirn henO 

veuder anhyweith°. Can deryv.DaRfv eith. 
//am oeleith . Can daeraud .Darw ked/ 
ymteith! Oet beirt-car.Bart clvm di 10 
ledielth . Oet cadaRn ago2- Dywinmo^ 
diffeith°. Oet HIr y truited . Oethyged 
higar . Oet llawar guyar. oe kywa-^ 13 
rweith° Oet buelin bias, gwanaf gw' 
aedreith. Oet eur-llev. o aer llin kad^ 
ieith° Oet Diwarn kadarn kedymde^ 

B.B.C. L/u iQC 

mteith unbiN. Oet diRn inheiRN.haea'' i 
rn y talheith . 3,e diwet yfpo , can bv. y 
leith . Ydiwin y cam kymeint y affeith. 3 
Yg goleuder feint . iggoleudeith . Yg go ^ 
leuad rad.rididpfeith. ©©©@©©©©^s©©©© 5 

^^L eithenhin fawde allan . ac edrychuirde vara^ 
^^s-/nres moz. maes gnitnev Rytoes.Boed emeii'' 7 
diceid y mo2viN aehellygaut guydi cvin . finauN wen-' 
eftir mo2 terruiN . Boed emendiceid y vachteith. ae. 
golligaut guydi gueith. finaun.weneftir mo2 diffeith. 10 
Diafpad vererid yarvann caer.hid ar duu ydodir. 
gnaud guydi traha trangc hir. Diafpad mererid . y 
ar.van kaer hetiv.hid ar duu y dadoluch.gnaud gu^ 13 
ydi traha attreguch . Diafpad mererid am gozchuit nimhaut gozlluit. G.G. traha tramguit. 
Diafpad mererid y ar gwinev kadir kadaul duv 16 
106 Liti^ B.B.C. 

ae gozev. gnaud guydi gozmot eiffev . Diafpad mer-' 
erid. amkymhell heno yurth uyiflauell. gnaud guy^ 
di traha trangc pell. Bet feithenhin fynhuir vann 
Rug kaer kenedir aglan.moz maurhidic a kin raw. 

(EniDfb . ntfibon . Ilpbjarcl) 5m. 
'ec yd gan iradaren ar pwit pren. vch. 
pen gwen.kinyolo dan tywarch briw^ 
ei calch hen . ©02eu trywir inev gulad y am^ 
diffin ev treuad . eithir . ac erthir . ac 

argad. ^ri meib Uywarch . tri aghimen. 
kad. Tri cheimad awlawen . llev. ac araO. 
ac vrien . J^andid hauf imachuiffon oe ad^ 
av arlan awon . y gid allvewur . lluydon . 

B.B.C. uv 107 

^ary trin ryuel adun . cledir kad kanvill . o i 
gimun . Ren new Ruy aendeid huN. ©©©@© 
Gpzev rywir y dan new y amdiffin euhadew 3 
pill.aseliw. asandew. ©©^§©©©©©s©©©©©©©©© 
Y bo2e gan las ydit . bankirchuid mug ma'' 
ur trevit . nidoet vagaud meirch mechit . ©©©© 6 
Kywaryan am cavall . kelein an wiar ar wall, 
ky yranc Run . a.r drud arall . ©©©©©©©©©©©©© 
Diafpad adodir ygwarthaw Hue vynit. o. 9 

duch pen bet kinlluc meu gerit. mi ae go2uc. 
Ottid eiry tohid iftrad.Diwriffmt kedwir ycad. 
mi nyd aw anaw nimgad . @©©©^§©©@©©©©©@ 12 
Nyduid yfcoleic.nid vid eleic vnben nithel^ 
wir in dit reid . och kindilic nabuoft gureic .@3©§ 
Pell otima aber llyv . pellach yn duy kyuetliw. 15 
talan teleifte deigir imi hetiv. ©©@§@^g©§@g© 
108 L^y" B.B.C. 

The Verb To Be and its Compounds. 

*,* The work done on the Verb Substantive in Old Irish has suggested 
the Welsh paradigm, here offered tentatively. The references are to the 
text of this book with certain illustrative instances from the Books of 
Aneirin and Taliessln, as well as the poetry in the Red Book of Hergest. 
The usage in prose must be examined and compared before arriving at a 
final classification of forms like handes, iwyat, boet, and compounds of 
bid. In the older Welsh poetry byiav, as well as bint and its compounds 
appear as futures. The pluperfect is unknown. I owe special thanks to 
Prof. Strachan for suggestions, and for sympathetic criticism. 

Present Indicative. 

1. Wyv. wif 78-2, 798; vif 50-19 i viw 79-8, 102-9; wi ioo-6-8 ; 

oef 50-2. An. andwyf 15-22. Tal. mitOyf 19-22 ; mydOyf 71-23. 
R.B. ydwyf 168-35-40 ; yttwyf 23-/^' ; handOyf 12-27. 

2. wyd. vid 77-10, 85-11, 91-5, 92-6, 108-13 ; uid 85-12-15, 108-13. 

3. yw. yv 23-6, 59-2, 67-2, 76-2, 79-5, 88-8, 94-1 ; deryv 1-3, 105-8 ; 

id woriv 17-4 ; paniv 98-6. Tal. yttiO 12-23 ; deryO 27-10. Laws 
eu 85 ; yhu 98 ; patiyhu 104 ; henyw 76. R.B. id 13-/J; eu 
12-22 ; yOr24-/j ; nyt ydiO 938 ; kennyw 172-10. 

^. mac. 26-3-9, 63-13, 69-5-14, 82-7. 

y. oes. 21-13,34-1, 53-13,97-15. ra/.dioes 13-24610. [1599-7; £565-1. 

h.ys = = eVri = is. Ys 37-5, 53-12,65-1 ; 70-15, 81-7 ; yss99-7;n 

€. yssyd= there is. Y5sit Tal. 27-9, 28-18-25, 33-21. R.B. yssit 11-13. 

i'. yssyh = 'who, which, what is. Y5sit 35-6, 41-6, 53-1 1, 66-2, 87-12 ; 
Yssi 36-12, 37-10, 41-6-9, 97-3; yssy 56-7, 69-19; issi 38-6, 39-11 ; 

17. ossid=if there is. o5sit 59-22 Tal. L'ssi 38-5. An. 51 5-18. 

e. od=if it is. ot R.B. 1-23. |-g8-i4 ; nyd 59-2, 62-8. 

t nid=it is not. 7-7-10, 8-8, 26-11, 53-6, 68-2, 82-4, 867, 89-9, 90-2,^ 

3 pl._j'«/. yd ynt An. 2-15, 14-14, neut ynt 27-17. Tal. nyt ynt 26-14 ." 
ydynt 2014, 6015. R.B. ydynt 17-8 ; ot ynt 21-34 ; derynt 16-28. 

Imperfect Indicative. 

1. oehwn. oetun 23-11— 24-5. ^«. oedwn 3-7. 

2. oehud. oedut An. 2ri8 ; R.B. 11-37. 

3. oeh oet 1-9, 11-2, 34-2, 46-6, 49-17, 54-1, 66-15, 67-17, 69-1, 72-73, 

o3'2, 94-96, 105 ; oeth22-i3, ?66-5 ; it oet 20-11 ; yt oet 45-11 ; 
nid oet io8-6 ; ad oet 46-5 ; canydoet 43-2. ^«.oid 34-21-22, 
37-19 ; ytoed 7-16. Tal. am dioed 19-17. R.B. handoed 171-^. 
3 pi. oehyn, -t. oetin 94-14. An. oedyn 13-2, 364. Tal. oedyn 14-24, 
oedynt 67-26. R.B. hannoedynt 16-7. 

Abnormal Imperfects. 
a. 3 sg. Bwyad. buiad 507. R.B. 12-5, I7-3-5-3I. 3 pi. buyint 96-2 
^ 3 sg. Bybat 1215 R.B. y. 3 sg. Buei 15-23 R.B. 

N^ 109 

Imperfect Indicative & Conditional. 
I sg. By&wn. Tal. bydOn 59" 14. 2 sg. Byhud. vytud I3'2. 

3sg. Byhei. bitei 65-17, 667, 68-2. ^«. bydei i8-20, dy- 5-4, hu- i6"3 ; 
3 pi. ZfySy^Auitint 96-3. ./?.i>'.bydynt 12-35. [bithei 35-7. 

Future Tenses. 

1 sg. Byhav. bitaw 97-4 ; vytaw 79-5. Tal. bydaf, 7-9, 65-10 ; dy- 

2 sg. ^ydy. by8y/?.i?. 15-36. [bydaf 1913. 
3sg. byh. Bit 31-11, 53-8, 55-4, 56' 11, 57-6-8, 60-11-13, 70-14, 79-16 ; 

vit 4-8, 478, 51-15, 52-2, 61-6, 88-IO-I2, 97-16, loo-ii ; bid 52-5, 
54"8, 59-5 ; ad uit 55-16, vit 56-2 ; yd uit 88-12 ; dybit 55-10, 
61-7; diwit 51-10; dyuit 938; rybit 51-11 ; rydybit 54-12, 
-dibit 57-3: gorvit 52-5, -uit 5rii, 59-4; digorbit 5214; dim 
gorbit 27-2 ; guibit 76, 472. Tal. dydybyd 42-20 ; deruyd 
18-4; deubyd 17-17-24; bieiuyd 18-5. ^.5. hubyd 13-27. 

3 pi. Byhant. vydant An. 3018. Tal. bydant 21-21; dybydant 

26-12. Laws, bydan 75 ; bedant 98. 

j3. I sg. Byhiv. [Cp. kuynhiw 100-15. H.B. mudif ir/a] Tal. bydif 

57-12, 58-11, &c.,gOydif 63-21. 
3 sg. Bythawd. -^bithaud T\; bitaud 56-7, 58-13, 82-9-13, 85-3; byt- 

aud82-iri5. Tij/. bydha0t78-7 ; bythaOt 76-10 ; bydaOt 10-27. 

i?.^.bydhaOt 20-29, dy- I74i4 ; bythaOt 183 ; byda0t5-9, 17-^/. 
3 pi. ByhaGnt. Tal. 78-5 ; c/>. gOnahaOnt 13-9; meShaOnt 78-6. nuch- 

aOnt 78-1 ; pebyllyaOnt 77-15 ; cuinha&nt = deflebunt. Juv. Gl. 

y. 3 sg. Bi. bi 5815, vi 52-6, 84-8 ; adwi 73-13 ; dybi 6og, 62-16; 

dorbi 60-8,62-14 ; deupi 61-13 ; guybi 54-9. An.h\ 1-5 ; vi 12-12. 

Tal. bi 312; atvi 16-12-13; dybi 4-26,33-15; dyui 72-20; 

d^rnbi 76-8 ; deubi 3-9 ; dyderbi 77-23, -pi 17-18. 1-14; 

deubi 20-44 ; dybi 1T18 ; dyvi 2 34 ; dyderbi 22 ; dyworpi 5-18. 
3 sg. Biawd. Biaut R.B. yi4'37. 
3 pi. Bint. ? bin An. 14-5. Tal. bint 64-22 ; dyfynt 59-10 ; dyozfyn 

13-11. R.B. dybyn 176-18. Bint is app. Imper. in Laws 17-8. 

Customary Present Indicative. 
2sg. Bid=is wont to be. Bid 19-1-2, 266 ; deruhid 91*14 ; handid 
33-7,107-15. ^f.^S. bid 8-1-36 ; derffid 15-13. 

3 pi. f Bidan 5-4. 

Present Imper.ative. 

3 sg. Bid— let there be. bid 47'i6, 52-5, 79"12 ; uid 59-9. 

/3. 3 sg. Boed. boed 462, 97-5-11, 106-7-9. -^n- poet 13-18, 23-12, 
27-19. Tal. boet 4-20, 17-20, 28-20, 30-10, 42-26, 44-9, 46-21, 
poet 18-23. ^■^- boet 24-8, 173-30; poet 10-^. [SUBJ. 698]. 
*See note on futures in -aud etc. on page 112, lines i — 10. 

1 10 B.B.C. 



Preterite Indicative. 

1. Bu-um,BAm. buum ioo'3; wum99"ii-i5, ioom-7 ; uumyS ; pir 

2. BuOSt. 22-3, 91-6, 108-14. ^«- 26-14; VUOSt 12-3. |.WU-uf 22'12. 

3. Bu. 4-5, 66-15, 68-5, 87-8-11 ; bv 42-2, 46-4, 57-7, 69-11, 72-15, 

8814, 101-9, 106-2; fv 21-5, 42-2, 99-8; ffv 2113 ; wu 68-9, 
69-11, 88-14 ; darw 105-9 ; dyuu 664, -fu 402, -ffu 50 13, -wu 
42-14 ; guybv 45"lo. An. dydaruu 15-17. Tat. deubu 71-25 ; 
dybu 51-7, 66-11 ; dyfu 108, 19-14, 739 ; dymgofu 74-6. R.B. 
kanvu 226; goruu 225 ; gOybu 22-16. 
I. Buam. vuam 101-4; darfvam 105-8. B.B. 170-6 vuam.- 
3. Buan, -t. uuan 3-5 ; want 34-5 ; daruuan 6-i i ; darwant 46-3. Buant 
An. 6-17, 9-3-10, 21-7. Tal. 4-16, 6-2-9, 24-16, 53-22 ; dy- 6-3. 

Present Subjunctive. 

1. Bivyv. buyf 50-7, 51-6; wuyf 70-16; wuyw 41-12 ; wuiw 100-15 ! 

buve 34-11. ..4«.- vwyf 27-11. Ttj/. bOyf 318 &c. 

2. Bych. Hanpich 35-2, 37-6. Tal. vych 27-25. R.B. vych 1-38. 

3. Bo 8-13, 54-10, 84-13 ; vo 47-2, 62-4, 74-13, 83-5, 102-8-12 ; uo8-5 ; 

aduo 8'6; atnappo8-2 ; darffo 83 ; dyppo 90-10 ; gorpo 17-4 ; 
yfpo 106-2. .,4«. deupo 615, 713-18, 202 1. 7a/. darffo 19-2 ; 
diffo 57-11 ; dyffo 10-12, 11-8-13, '67; K^yppo 43-24. Laws 
darfo & ryfo 92 ; pyeufo 91, 95, 96 ; byeyfo 78 ; hanuo 76. R.B. 
atvo 16-7 ; diuo 21-16 ; dyuo 16-27 J gozpo 176-19. 
I. vom 79-12. R.B. 19-25. 3. Bon, -t. vont 554; diffon 6o-8. 

/3. 3 sg. Bwy. ?bvi'r69-2. 7a/. ?anb0y'r7-5 ; dyuOy 60-11 ; gOypOy 

28-26. R.B. gorpOy 169-28. 
3 pi. Bwynt. BOynt Tal. 5-15, 10-19, '3'22, 77-9. Zijwjbuynt97, 119. 

R.B. bOyn 12-7, 13-20. Cp. kaffOynt 20-24, rybrynhOynt 20-/J. 

Past Subjunctive. 
I. Beivn. BetOn 7?.5. ii'38. Bei ys cuypun 81-13. 
3. ^^241-1, 53-2, 56-5, 58-2, 75-11, 81-12, 96-8; vei 18-4-8, 68-2; 

uei 97?« ; kyffei 87-12. An. pei 26-18, 359, 37-6-21 ; dyffei 2-3. 

Tal. dybei 6-3 ; dy-fei 3-8, -ffei 13-20. R.B. a wypei T2g. 
3 pi. Beynt. beynt Bruts 298-13. 

-T Preterites. 

1. Douth-um 22-13; gwneuth-um 81-14; imteith 22-10 ; [73/. ceint 

19-1, 23-20, 33-2-3-6-8, 34-5 ; gOeint 23-21-2, 26-13.] 

2. Deuth-oste 23-7, 876, 8813; ceunt-oste 218. 

3. Aeth 70-10, <yjm ; dodaeth 2311, 24-7 ; deuth 41-3, doeth 44-15, 

daeth 3-2 ; gwnaeth 38-7 ; ry maeth 87-6, 92-13 ; diffirth 4012 ; 
kymirth 40-12; cant 701-13, 103-2; guant 956, 96-11-14, 
3 pi. deuth-an 2-8, -ant 466, doeth-an 39, 4-5. [gvant 69-1. 

B.B.C. 1 1 J 

Some of the less familiar forms of Verbs. 
The characteristic of the Subjunctive Mood,& of the Indic. 
Present in -id & Futures in -aud, -aur, -tor, is h**j., e.g. 
car/zuiw ioo'i4, llun/iich 847, can/«o 84"5, gweUvy 74-2, digon- 
^om 30'3 ; gunel/;ont 604, ffo/>er 56, prin/zei 4ri, torr/«d 99"3, 
briu/iaud 589, taWaur 3ri2, kenhi//or 527. 
b + h = p. adnaiod: atna/'/o 8'2; scuio; gosgu*id 89'i2; achu^vy 75'io. 
d + h = tt. orfi ; o//id 89 ; norfi : no//vy 767; garfu : gutter 31 '5; dya/<aur58. 
S + h=th. byj: bi/Aaud7'i; eisteS ; eisteMosS's; ro5i : roMid 93'io. 
g + h = cc. edmy^u : ettny«aur 58'i3 ; ma^u : metcid 90^4 ; [teccav 42'3]. 
v + h = flf. darfod : dar^8'3: dyvod : dy^o io'i2 ; cq^aho 70*9. 
Pres. Subj. : I sg. Canhuyw 79'6 ; karhwiu ioo'9, carhuiw ioo"i4 ; 
(credwi/it 79'i4) ; dyvvyccviff 83'i5. 

2 sg. Cenhich, delhich, llunhich, yscithrich 84"5-9. 

3 sg. Bendicco 353 ; canho 845, ceisso 665 ; cofTaho 70^9 ; dalho 

7TI ; dehoglho 7'4 ; dirmycco 709 ; eistetho 585 ; erlinho 8'8 ; 

gwelho 7'6 ; gunaho 70^3 ; rithao 92"i i ; roto 29'i2 ; tragho 70^9. 
/3. achupvy 75'io ; creddoe 53'i5 ; canhwi 48-3; cothvy 7o'6, 

ry- 73'i5 ; dirchafuy 59'i4 ; eirolve 32"i2 ; gorescynhvy 76'8; 

gwelhvy 74'2 ; guiftlvy 75'5 ; guledichuy 47'S, 48'i, 59'i6 ; gunel- 

wy 47'i5 ; harhowe 48"2, -ovy 59'I5 ; nottvy 767 ; treithvy 75"3. 
I pi. Diwyccom 3o"3 ; digonhom 30^3 ; ri phrinom 88'i5. 
3 pi. Canhont33'6; gunelhont 6o'4 ; fafont 6ri2 ; vvnahont 6ri5. 
Passive .-'Brmhcr 5'5 ; keisser 5 1 'i 5, 52"2 ; elher 33"i2 ; ffoher 5'6 ; gwat- 

ter iori4 ; guelher 2'6 ; naccer 34-9 ; llather57-2 ; prouher 6'i. 
PastSubj. 3sg. chvarthei 68'3; kymynhei95'3;delhei 967;digonhei 

3 sg. Pres. Ind. in -id. cp. Absolute forms in Old Irish. Briuhid 
9i7'io, 99*3; kirchid 917; kynvUid lo'ii ; dyrcheuid 82'iri3; 
gosgupid 89'i2 ; gulichid 9r3 ; Uicrid 892 ; meccid 90"4 ; mekid 
6719 ; mettrid irio ; ottid 89-90 ; *reghid l4'lo ; reuhid89'2, 90^9 ; 
*rothid 9310; tohid 8914, 10811, toid 893 ; torrhid 99'3, etc. 
3 sg. Future in -aud. Briuhaud 58 g ; kaffaud 52'6, 76'8 ; cluttaud 
io"2 ; dir-, dyr-chavaud 4812, 53'6, 60-9, 5n5 ; gunahaud 54-4, 
60TI ; Uettaud 25-6 ; ry llettaud 5914 ; parahaud 100T3 ; reddaud 
58'i. Pres. barywhaud 897 ; blyghaud 1012, gvyrhaud 87'8 ; 
? daeraud 105 '9 ; ? duraud iri. | cp. amas, amaA 
3 sg. Futures Passive in -aur, -tor. Canhaur sS'g ; didolaur 58' 16 ; 
dileaur 606 ; divahaur 58T5 ; dyattaur 58m ; dygettaur 25'8 ; dy 
uolaur 37'4 ; etmyccaur 5813 ; godriccaur lori; ; talhaur 3i'i2 : 
kenhittor 527 ; megittor 62-5 : Pres. brithottor33'5 ; rewittor 93'g. 
Sigmatic Subjunctive. 3rd sg. Pres. duch 40-5 ; As duch duw 
yny dangneuet, Addl. 14869, 45b'i ; Boed ef an duO an du6ch attaO, 
Tal. 28'2o. Gwares R.B. 1-35. t 

* Imperative. \ Continued on page 157 below. 

112 B.B.C. 


The following Paleographical Notes deal with the correct 
readings of the Manuscript, not necessarily with the correct forms 
of words, much less with the meaning of the text. 

N.B. — All who read these Notes should do so with a copy of the Collotype 
Facsimile open before them. The subject of every note is the italicised 
portion of the word, or words, at the head of every paragraph. The following 
contractions are used for brevity. 

altd. — altered mod.— modern 

app.— apparently or.— original, -ly 

cler. —clerical rad.— radical 

cp.— compare wh.— which 

err — error wr. — written 

hd.— hand -—line 

Ir.— later t— suggested by J.M.J. 

The first page is gall-stained and dark, but legible with the 

exception of the first word at the top right hd. corner, to wit, 

MyrtiN. This is shadowy with no trace of the colour (red) left. 

i'2 genh/. The mark , is used in this MS. to indicate an omission. 
Under the ' there is a smudge only, while in '4 the , under the 
omitted ■* in ca</uan is by a Ir. hand : neither has therefore been 

r; kyuUjuan. Bottom half rubbed and illegible. 

I '6 tryuruyd. Altd. into 6 by a Ir. hd. 

17 Talyes. A horizontal stroke over a vowel usually denotes m 
or n : Jiere it stands for stn. Read : - Talyessm. 

I '9 tozyuu-. The second half of the o is practically illegible, but 
the word is undoubtedly t02yuu = t02yw (mod. tor/). Here we 
have an instance of " double u " used for w, hence the origin of 
its name : cp. 87 ena«yret = enwire8. Final w in this MS. stands, 
as a rule, for v=/ of mod. Welsh orthography. 

o 113 

2'2 ineutur i.e. in or at DeuSwr. nd\n Welsh yields nn in accented 
syllables and n in unaccented syllables. For example cs.nde\a.= 
ca««wyll, cale«rfa = cala«, but cale«»i.§-, desce«(/o = discy««u. 
Similarly when the proclitics an, yn, wyn ( = fyn) are joined to 
words beginning with d-, the d is assimilated. Hence i« + (jfeutur = 
iweutur, not i««eutur, because the first syllable is not accented. 
Compare i«yffrin 65'I5, inywinder 68'8, y«igabil 859, iwyganhvy 
47'4, wynihenit 50'i3, winvywron ioo"i6, vy «ruc 24"2. The B.B.C. 
observes this as a rule, but it also has instances such as in nvfin 
87"5, as well as yn, vyn and vy, followed by the radical form of 
the noun : vy</arogan, etc. iineutur may also be rendered in two 
towers, or read in eu tur=mod.yn eu twr. 

3'2 kyulaun. Metre and rhyme seemingly require ' kyulauan.' 

3'5 \x\XA.n = mod. vuant = ra(/. buant. 

37-4'l. The order of the words is indicated by the marks .^ 
Read: Trwy a thrwy, rhwy a rhwy, y doethan ; 
Traw a thraw, im doeth braw am Elgan. 

4'i braw. Hitherto printed bra«, which makes no sense: rhyme 
and reason require braw = braw. The scribe also wrote bra«, wh. 
some Ir. hd. altd. into n by joining the limbs at the top. Cp. \V2. 

4'2 Llat Ayuel oe diuet kyu\ Wr. over erasures ; the writing 
is therefore blurred. 

4'4 wnaethan/. Covered by the rubric paragraph mark. The rhyme 
proves that final t after n was silent, in words of more than one 
syllable, as early as xiith century, and was often omitted, as in 
the verbs doethan, darparan, etc., and in nouns like Morgan, 

4'9 wuchit = ra(^. buchit = buche8 = vita. [dyffryn, etc. 

5'i darpan = darparan. p = par as well as p^r. The verb here is 

52 guadlan. Scr. err. for ' guardian.' Cp. ^'J. \darpar. 

6"2 fei^iiran. There are traces of an erasure between t and h. 

6'5 kinhuan = tkynK/an, o»j^/. 

7' 10 Nid cur Uauur wrth di« da. App. 'di;«' should be read here. 

8 This page, wh. is dark and dirty, ends the first quire. The MS. 
is defective here : at least one quire is lost. 

8' 10 T&nnet. Wr. app. over an erasure which extended beyond -et. 

9 This page, wh. was once an 'outside page,' is dark and dirty. 

114 B.B.C. 

9' I Devs Ten rymawy awen. R«i should be R^i?n, both here and 
elsewhere : the metre requires, and the word is, a dissyllable. 
Compare: Ren nef rymawyr Ay wedi. Tal. 3' 12. 

Rymafei biO blith yr haf. Rymafei edyftraOt y gayaf 
Rymafei win gloyO ac oleO. Rymafei torof etc. Tal. 707-9. 

9'5 trybef/Amd. Altd. letters, and consequently abnormally formed, 
especially the a. The / is joined at the top to the following t in 
a faint way, as if made by a pen when the ink was all but ex- 
hausted. The doubling of i after s is not usual, but there are 
other instances. The rhyme demands -aud. Cp. Book of Talies- 
sin, 6o'i3 : Atozelvvif flamdwyn vaOa trebyflaCt. 

97 Amha(/. There is a notch in the vellum here. Cp. I5"3. 

9'ii kyTvatas. w is abnormally formed: a is quite small and in 
the position printed in the text : s was or. wr. f. The alterations 
look old. The scribe probably wrote kyz/ataf=kyva8as. 

9'i2 caL This reading was suggested to me by Prof. Morris Jones. 
" The click of the cynghane8 demands a c here," and the sense 
confirms it. I must, however, confess that I have failed to see 
ca in the MS.,— these letters are too ill-defined to be sure of any- 
thing, though the a may be compared to the a in trybeflaud above. 
Still there can be no doubt as to the correctness of the reading 
ca{, or about the acumen of the suggestion. Read: — ■ 
kerd kymwynas | ked kyvafias | cas amSiveid. 

9'i2 amti/«eid. Even if there be no other instance of the survival 
of m = v in the B.B.C., still I do not think the MS. permits us to 
read amdiazeid, as suggested to me. 

912 Cathyr. Four-fifths of the Cis formed normally, but there is 
a tag at the end (possibly added later), which converts it to a 
character more like G than any other letter. See Facsimile, and 
cp. i6"3 where the tag, inside the C, is merely a dot. Perhaps 
both cases are instances of clubbing, common at the end of c and / 
in the B.B.C. Prof. Morris Jones suggests that Cathyr is the 
original form, and C(?thr a form deduced from the pi. Cethri where 
the e is regular, caused by the termination. Cp. the Latin 
C^ntr-um with Cathyr, and Centum with Cant. See Silvan 
Evans's Dictionary, s.v. Cathrain, to drive with a goad. 



10- 'i C02 SLchiwid. Cp. i2'3, 36-6. (For /fyz'/(^see I2'4, 62'lo. 76'i3). 
Cp. Dywynnic dy wir yn wynnyas, 

Dy wynuyt ym kywyt nyt cas. R.B. i424"8-9. 
lo"3"6 >tyhid...wofco2d. Possibly patched. [here. 

107 kygci2 = kynghor. Cp. 7313, 90'4. There is a notch in the vellum 
lo'io Clo ke/vid. Or. wr. i. Metre requires 4 syllables. Read: 

clo kelvjVid. 
ir2 braz^duriaeth. Altd. late into «. Cp. bra«, 4T. 

1 1 4 Gvytbui/. Cler. err. for Gvytbui//. Cp. ara/, 68'3. 

ir8 me/A'in = nie8 + cwyn (c('«rt) = ' mead -feast.' Cp. Gwr a aeth 
gatraeth gan dyd. ne Uewef ef vedgwyn vei noethyd. Aneirin, 4'2. 
Note the formation of t and c in the Fac, and observe how closely 
they often approximate in form: contrast 79' i. 

12 The capital APs in this page, with the exception of the one at 
the end of first line, are formed as if two elongated 00 were 
joined together, a form unknown to me in other Welsh MSS. 
The same remark applies to pages 11, 8r3, and 93'ii. 

I2'5 minhev nevjr?i\. An affirmative particle. f=ff. 

1 2-8 doetA. Modern. Wr. probably by Dr. Davies. 

1 2- 10 Mynvz'nad vron. As the scribe has left out the line which 
should follow, it is, perhaps, unwise to suggest ' myn viwad vron.' 
The ' over i (which answers to our dotting) is late. 

13-5 oaan, i.e. organ, from Lat. or^num, as anan from ar^ntum. 

13-5 vahanieth. This spelling probably represents the pronunciation 
of the scribe, and prevails still except in GwyneS and Glamorgan. 
Final unaccented ae became e very early in the greater part of 
Wales : in the early MSS. it is often so wr. in verbal forms like 
adwen for adwa^n, and in proper names like Ithd for ludh^zH. 

13-6 Scribes were in the habit of leaving spaces for big initials, to 
be afterwards filled in by the rubricator, who often corrected 
mistakes, and patched certain capitals. The scribes however 
' wrote small ' the proper letter, either in the middle of the space 
left blank, or in the margin as here. See Facsimile. 

13-9 /«rthen. Read: az'rthen = ? derivative of ^zV/V^. 

*♦* The distance between M' and the flanking limb of 'u' is, as a rule, 

greater than that between the two limbs of the ' u.' Cp. efmuith, 4 above. 



1 31 1 vebin=//. of maban, of which baban is a mod. doublet. 

14-3 paraad. Boggled letter. Or. wr. rr or rf. There can be no 

doubt about -«W being the correct reading : the rhyme requires it. 

i4'5 Ryhazt. The old stem diphthong at = medieval ae, as in 

dyhrti?tei 24- 1, wh. we have affected in di-hi-z't, 96-9. ' tBoth or. and 

affected vowels occur in 3rd sing. pres. Ind., as in cdn and tdfl.' 

145 itau/. Possibly an older form of the 3rd sing. m. termn. of 

the prep. thaw. Cp. utu/ and u8u : see Note 49-50. 
I4"6 nzMt. More like n in MS., but the rhyme needs u. 
1 5 '9, 90-5 cluir, a monosyllable. Note its rhyme words— meaning 

= ? closet. Cp. yflyryem yn UOyr kyn d6yr cyffes. Tal. 33- 13. 
15-1-10 Repetition with slight verbal changes. Cp. 9-5-7. 
i6-i. Ca.&\xwoberyv. t A dissyllable rhyming with dirper. 
i6-2 Kanholicion i.e. Kan holicion =/n>;« suppliants. 
16-3 Cau. There is a dot inside the C, but detached from it. See 

Facsimile., and note on 9-12. 
16-4 kyuryff; = kyuryff(r/', i.e. kywrysseS,orkyvryffe8. See 60-14, 78-14. 
16-6 Kywreneirch = tkyfr-e«neirch,^r^^/z'«^.f. Cp. Cyfr-goU. 
17-7-10 This Englyn was wr. in the second half of the xvith century. 
The curious should compare this very intelligible Englyn with 
Skene's reading of it (vol. ii., p. 315). 
18-4 A<r wei gyaerkinan = A//iei tg^zyuerkinan. See -8, & Note 4-1. 
18-4 am.y.gylchin = y amgylchin. 

18-8 Ac z/ei. vei. paup. The abnormal late line (see Fac.\ drawn 
from the top of the second hmb downwards across the first limb, 
is a XVllth century attempt to change v into/, thus reading 'ac 
p€\. vei. paup.' The line is however a syllable short. Read— Ac 
vei vei. i. paup | tri trychant tavaud | Ni ellynt wy draethawd | 
kyvoetheu y drindawd. ' And were it that there were etc' 
""r The so called conj. 'pei' is simply the impf. subj. of the verb 'to be,' 
with the consonants hardened, a mark of the subj. It occurs also as here 
with rad. 'b' softened into 'v,' an unusual mutation after 'ac' Still 'acvei' 
Is the same as 'a phei.'" 
19-2 tridaud. Cler. err. for tri«daud. 

19-5 Guae ti di«. Omit. The punctum delens under the n is app. 
in the or. ink. Read: Guae tidi. 

B.B.C. 1 1 y 

197 ncv duid = nevd u\d = moti. yr wyt. 

i9'lo Trvach. Comparative of trv, 577. Synonymous with its 

derivative truan, the word in common use. Cp. irugsLT. 
1910 llogyl-vi\\. = \locul-\xs, i.e. coffin v/ood = 6ier. 
207 kyuef. cp. kyn kywefc daear kyn g02wed r byt ozfun gododin 

bed. Aneirtn, 19'3. Cp. also the doublet forms prysc and prys — 

na chlat im prifc, wh. rhymes with^/2'j and kyfruys. See 57' 15. 
20"io-ii. The writing of these two lines is a trifle smaller than in 

the rest of the page — type one size larger would represent the 

MS. better. 
21*2 Prit prinudechant = /«0(i Prid prynud-(^ chwant. 
22"i moe y diwo/aflute. Metathesis for diwwaffute. Mod. mwy y 

dyfnasut-/i. | Cp. di»waffune, 87'8. 
22"i merwerit = Merwery8, from " Mori-Iverijo treated as Mori- 

verijo, the Irish Sea, and later the sea generally. In the first 

sense it came to be wr. Mor Weryh in the XVlth cy., and Mor 

y Weryh in the xixth." J.M.J. 
22'3 gu^rth. In or. hand. Cp. 84' 12. + Should be gurth as or. wr. 

Cp. Mod. wrth na buost= since thou hast not been. 
22'4 vffil = uvil. From Latin hu7nil-is. 
22'4-5 creirev na. In the Fac. something like a letter appears 

between these two words. The vellum of the original MS. is 

greasy here, and an/on p. 21 'shows through' at this place. 
22'5 «a. Open at top — almost a u. 
227-10 The first letters of these lines, as well as the letters at the 

end of the corresponding lines on the opposite page, are somewhat 

smudgy, because the MS. was closed before the writing on page 

23 was dry. 
22'i2 pir wuuf=pyr vw^. 
23' 11, 247 dodath. t' Perhaps from *do-ate-acf-, a past participle 

pass, used as pass, verb, was put. In the verbs aeth, gwnaeth, 

the element *act is perfect active.' 
24. The writing (i.e. the strokes forming the characters) of this 

page in particular, and of page 25 in a lesser degree, is 'open' 

as if done by a fatigued quill pen, or with insufficient ink. 
24"ll keugant kywraghauw. wide kywiffcaran. Read: 
tkeugant kyfra«ghaw« | wedy kyfyscarwn. 

118 B.B.C. 

24" 1 3 ^inatlet. Or. wr. h^ but alt. into k, app. by the scribe. 

25'5 Uuch a thar/an. Scr. err. for ' Uuch a tliaran.' 

26' 1 1 beddrael. Rad. i^pedr-ael, four-sided. 

271 eiliver/ v^^it. Scr. err. for ' cilWer vinit' = Mons 0/ivar-um, or 
mynyS yr OlewyS. Silvan Evans corrected v^rfit to "venit" a 
form not found in the B.B.C. See Skene's Four Ancient Books 
of Wales, vol. ii., 329. ' MynyS Olifer.' Myv. 354''. 

27'8'9ii. The numbering of the Triads in the MS. is late, and 
therefore not reproduced. See Ftu. 

27'i2 fir. k. = fil/a.y Kudvan. 

28' 1 3. With this line ends the third quire. The end of the last 
Triad is wanting, and evidently one or more quires are missing. 

29' I inwechrev. Altd. App. the scribe caught himself in the act 
of repeating the proclitic in: he wrote i and the first limb of n, 
which he clumsily joined at top and bottom into something 
suggestive of the letter n. Note that the n is not generally 

29'3 welli = 2nd sing. pres. Ind. of gwallu. [doubled. Cp. 2"2. 

2g'6 er-gynan, bespoken, renowned. 

307 Ym Gueinvod im g02od. Guein-vod^shtzih-XiVt abode, the 
grave. Gorod is probably a cler. err. for +gor/bd. 

30'io graget. Cler. err. for 'gwraget.' ' 

3 1 '2 G«ae. Abnormally formed, and more like n than «, unless 
note on 4'i is applicable here. Sense requires u. Cp. Red 
Book of Hergest, I i9o'29. 

32'2 maret. Cler. err. for tmaaret, fnod. mawreS. 

32'io After 'Dychricha croen diuiffet,' one line or more must be 

34'5 awant = az^ant, z>. a vuant. [wanting. 

34' 1 1 ny bu | ve = ni hv/yi\ = dialectal ni bii^ i. 

35'2 athuedicco = ath ve«dicco. 

35'3-8 a. The fact that we have ^agell, t/aftad, Teir, proves that 
this 2L. is used as a contraction for the formula of '2. The simple 
conjunction would give af,4angell, a^aflad, a/Zieir, and would 
not be followed by a ' full stop.' 5^« 3510— 36'8. 
N.B. — By reading a' th vendicco and a'' th vendigwys respectively 
for each a. we get a perfectly regular poem in cyhydeh naw ban, 
i.e. lines of 9. 

B.B.C. 1 1 g 

3S'6 gult. We want here a dissyllable, a word app. for firmanent 
as opposed to earth 'eluit.' If guit = gwynt, as one would expect, 
then a word is missing. 

35'io — 36'8 2i. = 3.lhuendiguiyie. Note the repetition of 35'9 in 36"l 
and see note on 3S'3-8. The termination -ws is, perhaps, older 
than -wys. See next note. 

36"i athuendig«fte. C)>. 3S'9, ««(/ffruinclym«s, 93'i3. 

362 a vascul a.femen. From Latin masculus anAfemina. See 38'8. 

36'ii-i2 in celt = in ca'li for Lat. in cwlo. The idea that 'Celi' 
proves Druidic worship in groves of 'holly' is too absurd to 
contest. ' Duw celi ' means simply ' God of heaven.' It may 
be necessary to state that ce and a were written simply « or ^ in 
late Latin. The genitive celi was adopted as a Welsh word, and 
used indiscriminately for all cases, and sometimes did duty by 
itself for 'Deus coeli.' Cp. 37'8. 

37'8 fpu = fp/>7'/u. Cristi, pater, fili, and spiritu are in various 
cases, all used here as vocative. 

38' 10 auneth. Cler. err. for 'aunaeth' = a wnaeth. 

38'! I llythir.ig. cuir «>. wax tablets. 

39' I finhuir, i.e. the senses, feeling. 

39'2 huir=j/o«/, patient, gentle. Cp. huir.vridet, 6o"i8. 

39'3 otyueti wir = o SyweSi wyr. 

4o"3 vuildaud i.e. humilitat-em. See 42" 14. 

40-5 An duc^ = may he lead us. \ From *doucset—o\A sigmatic subj. 

407 werindaud i.e. virginitdt-em. Prof. Morris Jones calls my 
attention to this word in Llyfr yr Ancr I7'4, Latin text i85'i. 

40' 1 2. The fourth quire ends here. The writing after this page is 
smaller and the ink blacker ; the patching is in red instead of 
chrome. The writing belongs to the same school, but it is not by 
the same scribe. Note the slightly different orthography. 

40 bottom margin. Repetition of 11. g-1.2 by a Ir. hand. See Fac. 

4 1 '6 guirth. Latin virt-us, | whence also Xr.firt, miracle. 

4ri3 devwit. Altd. letter. 

42'i3 ioff=Iov = Job. 

43'5 y mas maeiftaud = in the field of honour. Mas is a scr. err. for 
ma^s ; and maeifiaud \s the Lat. maiestdt-em. JCp. Tal. irg. 

1 20 B.B.C 

43"6 adwin. Corrected by a mod. hd. into 'a dnvin' as in 7 : the 
same hd. has wr. something resembling ' over mrts = ma(?s, '5 
above, diwin (which is the negative of gwyn) = sullied, impure, 
unblessed. 'tThe metre requires diwin — duw a liiwia.' 

43-6-7 a diwad a diwin. ? omit both as, wh. make the lines 

8 syllables each, and do not help the sense. However, this may 
be an Englyn dyrr a tho^eid, wh. has 10, 6, 8, 8, syllables. 
438 brad. Sense suggests a cler. err. for bra/^d. 

Read: Y'maes maeiftawd y mac moli — Duw 
a diwyn i go8i ; 
Difad pechawd, wyd we8i, 
Diwyn celu brawd celi. 
In the field of excellence is God praised ; 
It is hurtful to offend him ; 
Ungodly is sin, passion's craving; 
It is culpable to conceal the judgment of heaven. 
43"9 guenglad. Cler. err. for guengwlad, i.e. gwenwlad. 
4316 o gylleftic. Cler. err. for o gyllestnc. Cp. Taliessin, 76-14. 
44-1 apis idi. impuet = a p^ris idi ym p^ruet. 
44-10 ywin iti. Scr. err. for y owin iti = /«Of/. i ofyn iii. 
44- 1 5 hnni. Scr. error for h/nni. 

45-6 Ilewtir. Sic in MS. Cp. Ile/nir, 67-3 : lle/dir, Aneirin, 23-15 ; 
Yn llannerch yn lleudirme.Tvynya.vm, Mvi^. i6i*-24; & lle«tired. 
45-8 Kai z>. ka-i, a dissyllable, = A'rtz«. See44-i6. [7'ti/. 77-21, &c. 
462 paup y chwant. Sic in MS. = paup er y chwant, or pawb i ry 
chvvant. But cp. 44-8-16 of The Book of Taliessin, wh. reads : 
AduOyn gaer yflfyd ar Ian lliant. 
AduOyn yt roAir y pa6b y chwant. 
Gogyfarch ti vynet boet teu uCiyant. 
GOaywaOz ryn rei« aderllyjfant. 
DuO merchyr gOeleif wyr y^kyfnofant. 
Dyf ieu bu g6artheu a amus^ant. 
Ac yd oed vziger coch ac och ar dant. 
Oed lludued 'iiynet dyd y doethant. 
Ac am Gefyn llech vaelOy kylchOy vziwant 
Cwydyn y gan gefyn llu o garant. 



The variant readings are instructive, and if this is typical of the 
way MSS. were copied in the xiiith century, it is no wonder the 
Book of Taliessin presents endless difficulties. When a proper 
name like Gwyneh is transformed into the verb myncd^ and 
Kei wyn into cefn, etc., the sense naturally becomes elusive. 
Even the Black Book text is not above suspicion either. The 
number of the syllables in successive lines is too variable to be 
accurate transcripts of what the poets wrote. 

463 darwant — darwi'ant = worf. darfuant. 

46-5 ad co2ffant*. Altd. letter. 

46"! I, 583 kad degin. Cp. Aneirin, 3"5 : dwys dengyn yd ymledyn 

46' 1 6 gl'ich = galich. [aergwn. i villains. 

46'i6 diw«/-« rhymes with maelg««. The r is mute. Cp. Aneirin : 
diw Sadwrn bu divwm eu kyt, I7'i6; and '■ha didurnn,' 35"i7. 
Cp. also dialectal Sadw«, and gar8w« ( = gar8«'r«). 

47'2 y ch(?gev. App. with a affected. Cp. y chageu 48'4'i4. 

47'2 auit. ? a uz*it = a wybyS. Cp. 47'i2. 

47.4 inyganhvy...imon«>. in Mon. See 2'2. 

47'5 g/«edichuy. Cler. err. for ga/edichuy. See 517, 78'3. 

47'5 yka.'u/in. Cp. 813. There is a hole in the MS. here : no trace 
of the TV is left, and only the smallest fragment of -in at the top. 

47"5 t" = tra. This contraction mark (see Fac.) is used for ra and 
ur indifferently. 

47'io balawon, T/^/ balaon. Meaning variously guessed as, foxes, 
wolves, cubs, blossoms. Cp. Tal. — A mal balaon faeffon syrthyn, 
I4'22 ; & Aneirin: Peis dinogat...o grwyn balaot, 22'i2. 

47'i6 y env. Or. wr. v. 

48'! gint=_§v?«/esnigrae = kenhedloe8duon = Z>an^.r. Cp. 55'ii. See 
Annates Cambrie in Y Cvmmrodor, vol. IX., p. 165. Cp. Gozuchyd 
y lav lofien | ar ^«/ a gwydyl aphryden. Aneirin, 24*20. 

48'4 pen p...pchen = peren p^r...p^rchen. 

48'4'i3 puwaur = pufawr. + From Lat. /o;«ar-?'aj, fruit-bearing. 

48'4 maurwe/r|rauc. i5/zj/n'«/'^</wen'rauc in some copies. Gweirawc 
would suit an orchard, but \i pufawr= a fruit-tree then gweirrauc 
is tprobably a scr. err. for weir//zawc. 

48'io cle/yAiud. A metathesis for — cle/j/aud. 

122 B.B.C. 

48' 1 5 kywetyrn, 'drinkers.' Formed app. from kyveS, tas kadam 
(pi. kedym, ' warriors ') from cad. 

48'i7-i8. In a later hand. 

49"3 A mi difcoganwe. A scr. err. for ' difcoganflwe.' 

496 nyd ant y kenhi«, t/iey shall not go from us. Kenhi;««e by the 
process of assimilation became kenhi«ni, whence kenhi« (the 
prevailing form in old M.SS.) = mod. genhym, ist per. pi. Cp. 
CanhOyll yn tywyll a gerd genhyn | kynan yn racwan ympob 
difgyn. Tal. lyij. Gennin and gennon are still the forms in 
common colloquial use. In llettkin/ the / is silent. See Note 4'4. 

49"8 R?m. App. a place name. Q>. 'yn run.' Tal., yj'xf). 

499, 1054 yfcud vel yfcuid, I 6, 96'i3, etc. O.W. scuit, O. Br. scoit, 
O. Jr. sciath come from a Celtic *skeito-, connected with Latin 
sciit-vim from *skoito-. 

49' 1 1 y kifceiffe vy hun = \ slept my sleep, or more probably, I slept 
myself, t because hurt — sleep occurs as a rhyme-word in '12. 

49"ii pchellan = parchellan. p = prtr as well as p^r in Welsh MSS. 

49" 1 2 c/ywir. Pen. MS. 3 reads : dy\svc. 

49-50 vtvt i.e. u8u8 = an old form of the prep., 3rd pers. pi. Cp. 
Trychan meirch godrud | a gryffyws ganthun?. Aneirin, 30'22. 
Kynbelw and Gwalchmei used the -8 termn. frequently. See 
Myvyrian Arch. (1870) pages 143a, 145a, i47i>, 169'', 186^, 187", 
221^, 249b, where the following examples occur: — eitut, ganthut, 
kyfryngthut, racdut, trostut, utut, arnadud, ganthud, racdud, ym- 
danadud, etc. {See Pen. MS. 3, p. 8, Brit. Mus. Addl. MS. 14869, 
Panton MS. 12). The above prepositions occur also without the 
final -h=f. For example : o ganhat ieffu. | Ac vn tat ae bu | a their 
mam udw. | Onad« y doeth rad, etc. Taliessin, "] i;"] \ 75 '17. This 
is the oldest form: witness igridu ( = irigdu=/ rynghii) in the 
Book of St. Chad : see Preface to the Book of LI. Ddv, p. xliii. 

Note that the rhymes allow no doubt as to the terminations. 
A late hand has added the contraction mark for n over the second 
V of vtwt, thus reading vtv«t, a mistake wh. the scribe makes at 
t76"3-4, where \xX.unt should rhyme with kyftz^/. See Facsimile. 

5o'i, 5r2'3 iVa = Goth. nu, Sk. ntt, Gk. viv, Lat. nunz, E. now. 

502. Oei—wyi. 0£ is sometimes used for ze//. See S3"i5. 



5o'i3. Kyn <.\yf[od nr wi/lave i.e. vyllwtvi. 

50' 14 lleith mab guendit = the death of the son of GwenSyS. 

50' 1 6 Tra fu | vm puill. A scr. err. for ' v2m' = vymhwyll. 

50' 1 7 am buiad. Contrast Red Book : xxivmeib am bwyat, lo38'5 ; 

Brodyz am bOyat a due duO ragof, i048'5'3i. \ Impersonal. 

Cp. O. Ir. impers. ni-m-tha (also niinpthd), 'I am not.' 
50'l8 warius, /'.(?. war-I-us. Q). gwar-e-us. Aneirin, \V\. 
5i'i d/ogan. Hole in vellum eaten by the green paint of the big 

initial A on the other side of the leaf. 
5 1 '2 Nv nev na.m g'ujf. guall. Probably a scr. err. for igu^l. 
517 gwledic. First limb begun as /. Cp. 47"5, 78'3. 
5 1 '8 aghud = agh?zd = aghy/!yd in Pen. MS. 3, of unequal length. 
Srg hwetil = mod. chwedl. The old form, however, survives as 

hwehel: ni wdwn i mor h\\t.h€i = I knew nothing of the ^ talk^ or 

' story,' i.e. I heard nothing. Hw- prevails over the greater part 

of South Wales, and as nearly all our important vellum MSS. 

were wr. in South Wales, instances of hw- are not uncommon. 

Cp. huarhei 954, hwimleian srg, 557-I3, but also chuetil 5513, 
5 1 '17 y «ir. Pen. MS. 3 reads 'y oror.' [chuerv, etc. 

Srigowillt. o.§-wallt. ? Err. for a. There should be no following 
521-3. Repetition of 5 ri4- 16. [_§• after o. 

52'3 ha/on. Cp. ha/on 51 'id f=v still interchanges with 8. 
5210,597 nachlatde«'rt'/('z>= J 'lair'acc. to Prof Loth. j^o^. 1,337. 
52"! I Rac erwis ritech. Scr. err. for Rac erc/zwis rite^ch. 
53'6 niA. Or. vvr. uiA or iuA. 

537 guyflvi\\tA=guyta\\&A. Confused probably with buyfl-\\\^A. 
53' 1 5 cr&ddoe = cretwy i.e. 3 sing. pres. subj. The consonant is 

hardened in the subj. O.W. has -wy as a rule : in the tnod. 'credo' 

the d comes from the stem ind. of the verb. 
53'i6-i9 Yd welefe...mvyhaw. These three and a half lines were 

app. added In, and probably by a different scribe. Weles, in the 

first person, is unusual in MSS., though normal in the dialects. 

Cp. Rydid imeneid . reid ryioles, 87'2. 
53' 1 7 cj/null. Abnormally formed. 

53'J9 gog'^et. A stumpy addition is made above the e. Read: gog/et. 
53'i9 llaret. Derivative of llary, tfrom Lat. targ-\is. 

1 24 B.B.C. 


547. A m; difgoganafe. Abnormally formed. 

54-15 eneichauc. A derivative of ian-ach, i.e. without pedigree, of 

low caste. 
54' 1 6 ve. The stop after ve is doubtful ; it is too low down to be 

original : See Facsimile. 
556 dyhet. Cp. dyhet a divyfci, 61-15 I & ym bid dyhetauc, 55-2. 

Dyhet is, in sense, the negative of het=heh. 
55-6-7. The chemicals in the green paint used for the big initial O 
have eaten a hole in the MS. here, thus causingthe disappearance 
of the O and of the words written on the back thereof; see 
566-7. The same remark applies to 56-I4-I5, and end of 55-15-16 ; 
also 57-14-15, and end of 58-14-15. 
55-11 'oynt = o yni = or gynt in Pen. MS. 3. Cp. llu feif, eil oynt. 

Taliessin, 2,v\i. See Note 48-1. \U. Genii. 
55-11 c/ev. The sense alone can often distinguish between c/and d. 
' The place has been assumed to be Aber dcugleheu, but that makes 
one syllable too many. The scribe prob. dropped a syllable only, 
and we should, perhaps, read, cWev. Compare however :— 
Dymhunis ton vvyrS wrth Aher Dau 

Dy-chyrch glan glaswyn glwys y frydau. Myv., 144a -20- 1 
55-14 tir ethlin = tir epeling= ? y BerveS-wlad. 
55-15 o g*»»*. Read: o g[yfranc]. Pen. MS. 3 reads : 'gygrang.' 
55-16 ar vvarr. a#** kychuin. Read: ? ar warr ac ar kychuin. 
Cp. Peleidyr ar gychwyn a llym waewawr. An., 9-17. vymareu vy 
mar ae kychwyn, R.B. 1395 32. Pen. MS. 3 has ' acharr ar.' 
55 Bottom margin, in a late xvth century hand, has the following: 
Yr arglwyd Gozvchaf io2 eurgledd gwaeichion 
a Gatwo yn da ni Ennyd ac a gatwo yn dynion 
Rac Sais kav a Gvvyddel a Rac kas kigyddyddion 
A rac Bloedd a lledzith a Rac Bleiddiav a Uedzon 
Rac hwnnakw yn ddzwc Rac kwn kynnddaiziogion 
Rac dzaic awyz a thwzf a Rac dzykzythozion 
A Rac hiz ddvlwm Saafif a Rac Kezdd Wiliam Sion. 
•^* kav = gau i.e. 'false Saxon.' For 'kigyddyddion' read 'kigyddion. 
drykrythorion = dryg-grythorion. 
56-1-4. Wr. app. by a fresh hand, or at least by a fresh pen. 

B.B.C. 125 

56'4 Kylwet. A hd., like that of Dr. J. Davies, has inserted ch 

above the w, thus reading ' kyk/iwet.' 
56'6 Y parc/ieW. Enough of the first limb of the/ is left to be sure 

of that letter. 'pOTchell' in Pen. MS. 3. 
567 **** = var7v in Pen. MS. 3. The couplet then will be : 
Y parcAell yssy vyw, bySawd meu ; 
Ar hwn yssy varw, keissed ynteu. 
56'9 neurfdit golev = it is daylight. Cp. tnirf myfi = it is not I. 
56' 1 1 Ariel/. There is an n over the v, which looks old, but it can 

hardly be by the scribe, as the lines are so fine. See Fac. Mis- 
printed in some copies ' ar«'v.' 
56- 1 2 ll?<ch. Has a wr. above (by the same hand as 56'4), thus 

reading ' llrtuch.' But ? omit lluch : the line is too long. 
572 c\ir\ callet. Cp. glas callet, 333 ; oer callet, gi'a. A.\io Aneirin: 

Yd i gweles r ar hual tref tardei ^^Z/^rf, 25'6; en amwyn called a. 

med eidin, 33" 17 ; and Taliessin: Pan pzynaffant danet trOy fflet 

called, 1 3-26. Pen. MS. 3 reads ; 'gynhatled.' 
57"4 Kywrug glyu Powis achlas guinet = ? Between the chief of 

Powys and the clan of GwyneS. See Silvan Evans's Dictionary, 

577 trv. See note on 19' 10. [s.v. das. 

578 parchan. Cler. err. for parch^//an. 
57'io har(/wy. Looks more hke cl in MS. 

57"! I aer Ily/I A late hd. correctsyinto /. But ? aer llyi/=aerlly«/. 

57'i3 kimrvy . werin. Cp. Taliessin: a march karadaOc kymrOy 
teithiaOc, 48'S ; AtOyn plOyf Xy/wri^ydOy a towys, 9'i4; GOeleis i 
lyO katraeth tramaeu | bit vy nar nCyhachar kymryeu, 62-22-3. 

57'i4 gvif=a sow. Breton giuiz, gwez ; O. Corn, guis, \x. feis. 
' Gwys also is the name of a brook, and of one of Twrch Trwyik's 
piglings.' See Celtic Folklore, pp. 522, 5267. 

57-15 Nachu(le = Na chwfcti. Cp. 58'3-4. 

57'i 5 prifc rhymes with^f/j. Omit c and read/ry.f. Cp. kyues, 207. 

58'5 Sarffr^n. Cler. err. for Sarffrz'n as proved by its rhyme-words 
' gollwin ' & ' duUin.' We meet with Sarff-vryn in the form of 
Sarfbryn in a charter of Abbey Cwm Hir : see Dugdale's Monas- 
ticon. Mr. E. Phillimore queries Carreg lViier,nt!ir Llandrinc)pd 
Wells. See Owen's Pembrokeshire, vol. II. p. 300, note i. 

1 26 B.B.C. 

58'8 waur. More like »«aur in MS. But j/^awr in the line above 
seems to be against the repetition of the same expression, which 
also malces the line a syllable too long, yg g"ur in Pen. M.S. 3. 

58"9 llaffnev in ertirn, 'blades in their handles! Cp. 'esgyrn eliphant 
ys gnawd yn yrSant ar yr erhym! Myv. 230^'48. Cp. also mod. 
dwm cryman, cleSeu, &c. But if it=|Ir. a/>rt'<!ir»='fist,' we 
should translate, ' swords in their clenched hands.' 

58' 1 1 /odawr. When a vowel is placed as a contraction above a 
letter, as the i here above ^, it stands for r + the vowel written. 
Read pr/odawr. Also pridein (in margin). 

58*14 achiftutia gwad. Cler. err. for — a chiflutiaa gw4d. 

59"i A'i/rt'glas minit. 5cr. ^rr.ybr 'n^ud glas minit.' 

59'3 lluid yv vy bleit i.e. visage. Cfi. llwyd vyngran. 

S9"6 gaa/i. Prob. = ga7/OT = gafwy = ?a doublet of ^^(T/oy, '13. Piggie 
on a visit should not root up his lair, nor sojourn too long. 

597 nac ifte ■z£/iuuy = nac iste wmny = 'irwyvf/y. Cp. muyz/y, 337. 
The dialectal form of eisieb is isle : its final 8 was dropped in the 
xilth century (see Pen. MS. 29), but whether its ei- was simplified 
to i- so early, one instance is not enough to prove. 

59*12 re«/on. App. this is the MS. reading, but re/«on is perhaps, 
equally probable. Cp. kinreinon 67. 

60. This page is dirty, and the writing is not always quite clear. 

6o"i-2 ^rlaf k«h...disgog(jnaue. Very faint because the green of 
the big O at the back is gradually destroying the vellum. The 
two adjectives come together; this points to a scr. err. Read: 
O. a p. neud blodeu drein, gorlas kerin minit, eluit neud knn. 
Cp. dy cecin yr mynyd. Bk. of LI. Ddv, 145 "26. 

6o'5 veibonin. Scr. err. for veibonein. Cp. Gwaith fudig gwledig 
gwlad feibionain. Myv. i 5o<»*46. 

607 eriffi. The ff are faint especially the upper half. 

6o"io ifpi = ifp«ri, ' lances.' Cp. Aneirin : ac yfberi y beri creu, 7*9, 
3ri I ; y ozy/par yoz, 2i"i7. Borrowed, like Br. sparr, from O.E. 
*sparre (attested by sparr-ian), whence E. spar. Cp. O.E. spere, 
E. spear, W. sp§r. The s of i/peri is ill-defined. ' 

6o"i4 Kyuriff; = Kyuriffe/=cywrysse8, or cy/rysse8. See 78"i4. 

6o'i6 diguet, i.e. di-guet = diwe8. 



6o"20 kir = k^r, wh. occurs in mod. Welsh in the mutated form only, 

\.e.ger, near. See io8, XvV Uaur. 
6o'20 Vn y(r«« aroun. The MS. is a little dirty here and the letters 

somewhat indistinct. We should prob. read yffiin, i.e. 'un yff//n 

6r8 Rvit ny | kywruit. A verb is missing. /?^rt(/.- Rvitny tekywruit. 
6r9 Escyp rt^,f>'«czVA = anghyweith = ? unsociable, churlish. Cp. 

dzycyfpaytolion agkyweith-as. Bnits, 284'2i. But more prob. 

we have here another scr. err. for 'agkiu/eith' = mod. a«^/y^«'//«, 

viz., those who could not speak the Welsh language. 
6ri3 gwy //an =_g-«y/a«, a seagull. ^ 

6n4 kiniweti, i.e. "kyntth'x, pt. of KynfeS. 
6ri4 av]vnahont = a wnahont. See note rg, and 8ri4. 
62'5 alanas. The Greek s is wr. at end of lines when the space is 

scanty, and sometimes as here, above the letter preceding it. 
62"9 Kyn ifcar. MS. is almost black with dirt here. 
62'i2 ry;«i. Irregularly formed. The name of several rivers, &c. 
62'I5 — 63"! Compare J^eti Booi, 58030-32. 
63 Possibly a fresh hand begins with line 2 : the ink is paler. 

From line 8 to the bottom of the page the vellum is very dirty. 
63*2 E Betev. This B in the printed text should be plain, i.e. 

without floriation inside. 
637 Tedci tad awen. The epithet of/a/agT/^^ is given to 'Talhaern' 

in Nennius's Historia Brittonvm. Harl. MS. 3859, fol. 188(^7-8. 

Prof. Morris Jones refers me X.o XkiC Beirniad, (1864, p. 299), where 

Thos. Stephens identifies Tydei with the Irish Saint Tatheus 

''pater erat enim totius GuenXome^ i.e. tad Gwent, wh. a careless 

scribe app. corrupted into ''tad agwen.' See Cam.-Brit. Saints 

p. 264. As Irish th = VJ. d, so the genitive Tathei=V^. Tedei. 

I may further cp. Tathei with 'Tathiu' = 'St. Athan's' z.^. San 

Tathan's : see Bk. of LI. Dav, 27o'2i. The mod. W. ' Tydein ' 

possibly preserves the n of the Ir. 'Tathaw.' 
63'ii ru£=TaoA. rhwng. Faint in MS. 
65'3 tri Dodauc. Cp. muner uodauc i2'6. Mso Myv. — Botawcy 

rodawc y rodyaw toruoet, i6ia'42 ; Dwyn madauc dreic vodawc 

drud, 264a last 1. 

128 B.B.C. 

6o'i9 gro-Kt. ? Metathesis for gor-zx: cp. dy-ar, gor-dy-ar (R.B., 

1035 ■ I ), bref-ar-ad, gal-ar, llaf-ar, tryd-ar. See Notes 99' 12, loo'i. 
64"2 guyr, i.e. Gower. Metrically inadmissible ; app. in the nature 

of a gloss on ' gwanas.' 
64'8 pedr^a/. App. a scr. err. for pedro^/, wh. the metre demands. 

Cp. beddrael, 26' 1 1, and note the rhyme-words of pedrival, 6g"3. 
648 Abererch, wh. is near Pwllheli, is locally pronounced y Berch, 

i.e. a dissyllable. ? Read: Yn Abererch beh Ryderch hael. 
66-67'6. In a hand different from what goes before and after. The 

ink of 'Bet gurgi...heb drin' (66- 1 -8), is pale. 
66"3 dioes. ? a scr^err. for dio/es. Metre demands three syllables : 

dioes is usually a dissyllable. See TaL, i3'24, 1717, 2i'9, 37'i. 
66.7 a«on = az'on. Wr. n or., then altd. into the semblance of v : 

finally expuncted, with a v wr. above by or. scribe. 
66" ID yn j> mynyt. Cp. yn hir vynyt, "8 above. 
66"i5 gur tf^/ ^w««T' guir y neb ny rotef. Om\i oet hvnnv. 
6617 hr\ln = Brihw, app. a monosyllable. 
66"i9 ;^z>guynion byffet beidauc rut. Omit hir. 
6y6 cund. So in MS. Rea.dcnud = 'nhand,or a pack.' Diciionary. 

'tcry, wail, howl.' Cp. Mai cnut yn dylut deueid, Ta/., 68"2 ; 

Cant a dau y'ngrau y'nghrair achluS. Cnud a chnud a fyS ym- 

danaSuS. Myv. I45<?. 
67'i3 Bei elchwith &c. This line is a syllable short. Cp. Totn 

elwithan neuf gCilych glaO . maes maodyn ydanaO -. dylyei gynon 

y g6yna6. Bed Book, io48-29-4o. 
67"i4 maes meaetauc. ? Derivative of meueS, with the meaning 

'inherited.' The suggested t Me«etauc = MynySog would be 

' rm'fiitauc' Cp. maodyn in previous Note. 
67'i5 k/«zav. Scr. err. for 'k«/«av.' See Note 67'i3. 
67'i5 Pieu y bet hun. bet hun a hun = 8 syllables, treating pieu y 

a.%=pieu'r. ? Should vi^ read : Pieu'r be8 hwn ? 'hwn a hwn ' 

...Who owns this grave? 'So and so. Ask me, — I know'; or 

rather : Pieu y beS hwn .' a hwn ? . . . Who owns this grave ? 

and this ? . . . Answer .• Neud ef beS EiSef . . . a be8 Eidal . . . 

This is the grave of EiSev . . . and [this] the grave of Eidal . . . 
67' 1 7 Bet ew. Scr. err. for neud ox ys ef. t cp. 64' 12. 

P 129 

67"i9 kanavon. The young of man and beast. Cp. Kanawon 

Go2onOy gOzd gyniret gOyth. R.B. 143232 ; treis canaon An., 3-87. 

^'f^\\.2\%okyna6on,MAB. i8'27. For/4^«^«see57"io, andcp. ^wyw. 
67"i9 Meibow. Meib is the plural of mab: the double pi. meibow 

makes a syllable too many here. \Myv., 215a. 

67'20 meirch mei. Cp. A meirch mei meingrwn dwnn a dossawc, 
68' I bruyno. The pedigrees give 'Brwyno' and 'Brwyneu hen,' but 

the older MSS. know neither. Should we not read? 

Piev y bet hun ? bet Brwyn o Bricheinauc, — hir 
hydir y wir in y bro ; 
parth yd vei ny bitei ffo. . 
68"2 ydvei. There is something like « placed above dv as if to 

change the correct ' yd vei ' into ' y d^vei." 

68'2 Pieu y bet hun «id. ? aid. Two syllables are missing. 

68'2 aral = arial. Cp. gi'is. Delete cross reference at i r4. 

68'4 bre. Wr. or. o, then altd. into r. 

687 talyrth. See Facsimile, and note the difference between 

the r( in talyr/h and re in diarchar, "9. 
68"i2 yv Aunnv. ..gnr adigonei da ar y arwev. Omit hunnv. For 

a digonei read Idigunai or digunaei (both forms occur in B.B.C.) 

We have then : Pieu y beS yn y rhydeu ? 

be8 rhwyv yv, mab Rhigeneu, — 
gwr Sygwnai 8a ar y arveu. 
or tgwr digonei da arfeu. 
Compare the Juvencus fragment : — gur dicones remeda(ut) elbid. 
68'i4 y iffcarant. Altd. into the Ir., affected form, 'iffc^r^'nt.' 
68- 1 7 ny dodei. ? Omit, — a case of anticipation. 
68' 1 7 in hirgwewn le. Hirweun is a well-known place near Aber 

Dir : the name is now incorrectly spelt Hirwam and Hirwa/n, 

and may be heard locally pronounced Hirwen. As for le cp. in 

edrywuy le, 68'4. Cp. also Certenhin avon, cleveint awon, where 

the descriptive noun is added. 
68-20 Ae clathei [«««/"] caffei but . Neus, or ew wanted. 
6820 rydl/nant. The dd=d, not 8. Read: rhydnant. 
69" I Ri oet ew oet ef. Omit. Pronouns after verbs are fairly 

constant in the B.B.C, but metrically they seldom count. 

1 30 B.B.C. 

6g'2 guawrut. Scr. error for guaevf-ntt. 

699 tarv. Or. wr. / or r. 

69'io braucbrid. Scr. err. for bra^/aucbrid. 

69"i3-22 Y Beddeu . . . gawr. In a late hand. ffol. 76. 

69"is Run ryuel afwy. Cp. Run auael auwy. Add/. MS. 14869, 

69'i8 gyhoret. Cp. Conhorget, Bk. of LI. Dav, \(y)-2i. 

69"i8 dz'ara. May be read also dmra., and even draza. See F'ac. 

69"i9 einyavn ad C. App. there is a "(full stop) in front of "ab. 

7o"2 amryuef=? amryuefc = amryfysc, 'contention.' Cp. kyues, 207. 

Amry{ysce8 = confusion, medley, tumult. 
70"3 adwaen. This rhymes with hoen & poen. ? adw(jen, but cp. 

gottoev...gv««<?«v, 72"6 ; also 87'io-u ; & Gozffowyffeis naO 

n<7s I yny chroth yn was, Tal., lyz ; twhere we have proest in 

place of rhyme. 
70'5, 85'4 deweint. From midnight till/;'^if;«/, i.e. cock-crow. Cp. 

ny Odant pan yfcar deweint a gOaOz. Tal., 56'9. 
7o"6 mob din...mab duv. Though 11 syllables are permissible in 

the first line of an old Englyn, still the former mat is confusing 

here as regards theological terminology, and should be omitted. 
7o'8 Kyrreiweint [ = ma8euant]ageiff a goffahoduv | acniftirmycco. 

Clearly a scr. err. for aed\^(i=ae da.Q. i.e. aediMC. Read: 
Kyrreifeint a geiff a goffaho— Duw, 
ae danc nis dirmycco, 
a nef y nos y trangho. 
70"9 tragh°= trangho. The " is wr. over an erasure. 
70"i6 Din. Or. wr. D/7' or Uro, for there is an erasure at the end. 

Alt. by a late hd. into Din = dyn, which must be the correct reading. 
7rS arch aton. Cp. 5i'i6, & Taliessin: arch aedon, 68'io ; Guir 

y rat gOafpoathyant O2 adon, 477 ; vronn adon deccaf, An., I5"4. 
7r6 y.meid. Q*- Y- "ne^^d (7r8) = ym eneid, 7rio. 
7rio poem oweint. This i is probably due to the pen anticipating 

the ezn of ovieint. Read: poenoweint = ww^. poenofeint. 
7rio y rolre i.e. yr olre. See Llyfr yr Ancr, i65'9,— yn holre 

oludoed=a// our riches. The Editor now derives olre from O.K. 

ealre, gen. of eal. 
7 r 1 2 — 73- 10. See Red Book, 10421 2 — 1043- 1 5. Note differences. 



7ri3-'5 meirch can crimTut...o kad = White horses with blood- 
stained legs. Cp. Cn'mhog, a shin, a greave. See Silvan Evans's 
Dictionary under crimp. 

72" I can eu crees, i.e. cre-es. Cp. guin y cnes = cne-es, Sg'g. 

72'2 llongborth has been treated as a place-name, but never identi- 
fied satisfactorily. Prof. Strachan queries = Ir. long-phort, 'a camp.' 

72'4 guir igrid. + = Ir. gritk, a shout. See J.M.J's Geirfa to Barb 
Cwsc, s.v. gryd-wst = ' dadwrS,' ' cynnwrf.' 

72'6 guaev rhymes with gotto^v and g\oev. See Note 7o"3. 

72-n llatyflVnt. Altd. into Uatyffmt. [72-14, loo-i. 

72" 1 2 re. As regards form, its rad. can he gre or rAe. See Notes 

72'i4 b/ith. Scr. err. for brith. Cp. eriron dv '15, coch -17, 
guinn 73-1, glas7, livid -8. 

72'i4 rerint. Scr. err. for re-re-int, or rather re-re-eint (ioo"2), wh. 
should be read in "12, •14-17, 73'2-7. See Note loo'i. Red Book 
reads redeint, which shows that the meaning was obscure in the 
14th century. The word is prob. onomatopeic. Sense = ? OeS 
feirch weryreint dan forSwyd Gereint. 

73'4 gran. Scr. err. for graan. 

73'i2 degin = de«gyn = J Ir. daingen = ^ua\i^. 

7313 arvy. Compare Garvy saer, 47'i7. 

73'i4 Terruin tr(7chiad. \ ? Scr. err. for ' tr^chiad.' 

73'i5 Pedridauc heul. Cp. Athuolaf uilwrpedrydawc, il^^. 2i5b"24. 

74' I /aud. An ' written over any letter stands for ri. Read: pnaud. 

74'io o /al. The first half of o and the second half of / are left, 
but the rest of these two letters is destroyed by the green paint 
of the big capital on the back. The o may be c, d, or e, and there 
may be another letter between o and t. Of the /, I think, there 
can be no doubt 

74' 1 2 ebrui/ . . . clui/. Or. wr. d in both instances. Can Clwyd be 
for Clwyb f + Cp. gormo(/ for gormoS. 

7S"ll Bei nachanerf y tyernet. t Neither 'cantd' nor 'an erf' will 
do here. We require a word to rhyme with teyme/. 

75"i2 anhwyet, restless, unruly. Cp. cefiyl hweb., a quiet horse; 
also anhj'weith, io5'8. 

76-3 dihev utuw/, trallaud kyftut. t Scr. err. for utu/. See Note 49-50, 

J 72 B.B.C. 

76"i2 Gurifc for gurif, violence. Cp. prifc for pris, 57'i5 ; Pasgen 
wrys pafcueirch arjyi: vreifcdawn, Mvv. i6i^'i3. See Note, 207. 
76' 1 3 gueilgi dowyn = OTO<^. gweilgi Sofn. Y weilgi\% feminine. 
77'6 veiAiA)n. The /a/ have ■" '' wr. over them, in the same hd. and 
ink, but the second '' is more or less erased. There are no puncta 
delentia. The scribe was either anticipating next word, or un- 
certain in his own mind. He first corrects into veit/a</on, then 
erases the d., and suggests vei(//aton. Cp. ueitad, 73' 14, beitad, 
lo2"i I. Read: — Gwerlig haeton, gvaut veitaabn, vaton vetveint. 
77'9 lleon = Ileuon, 96-I3,//. of lieu. 
78"3 g/i'ledic. Cler. err. for, gwledic. Cp 47"5, 517. 
78' 10 alTuinaf y chnaut = a. ych naut = asswynaf ych nawS. 
78' 1 3 haul naut. The marks transpose the words into 'naut haul.' 
79-4 /vvclod = pnwclod. A>^ 741. 
797 /lev. Begun as g. 
79'8 viw ker&ur 'm ruw. More like c than t. See Facsimile. 

ruw = ruzw. Read: wyv kerSawr im rhwj'v. 
79' 1 1 Affuinaw etc. The first line is often repeated to show that 

the poem is complete, or that it ends as it began. 
7912-16. Wr. Ir. in antique style. Read: 

Tra vom kyd kerSed goned — kydymSeith, 
bid perffeith yn gweithred ; 
[t ym Meir] keilTwn ymwared 
drwy ffyS, a chrevyS, a chred. 
Kyd credwi it Dovy8 drwy kreiryS — ffyS, 
maur benyd meith beunyS ; 
Eneid ! pan im kyverchyS, 
pa 8iwe8, — ae beS a'm byS? 
8r4 iaul from do&i. Cp. GOae a dyt y V2yt myOn byt ae ia6d, 

R.B., I234'2i. Cp. caut from coii & craun from cronni. 
8r6 llyvir rod. tMetre points to rol, to rhyme with ifco/. 
8r8 /erthideu. Cp. 3i'3 ; Taliessin: ma02 7/erthideu, 37'2 ; also 
Red Book : dogyn iJerthideu 1 1 50'3 ; iJerthideu rieu rywafgara(»2, 
ii7o'8 ; uad 7/erthideu, ii90'3o. These examples suggest a scr. 
err., as also in /erthic, 53' 17. However, t Lat. partit-\i% would 
give a rad. '/erthid,' 



8 1 '8 kyrraw, 'forgive.' The corresponding word in the bottom 

marginal repetition is matev. 
8ri4 gmt fallum. On the banks of the Teivi ^z/'Z£/w = whitlow. 

I remember /r^«^/w« used as a synonym ol^pren melyn, wh. 

was used for the cure of whitlow. 
8ri4 Arav|vneuthume = Ar a wneuthum-i. Cp. 6i"i4, and see I'g. 
8i"i6-i9. Repetition of 7-12 above. 
82'9 etyl. Cp. mordOy...neu gamOynt y rydaO ae edyl\a. oetta gyv- 

reith]. W. Laws, \. bio. Dr. Daviescps. alsoken-«/j'/, io'5, i6"8. 
83' I Ystamde wineu. Cp. Guyneu, march Kei, 287. 
83"! RedecA. Shows more clearly in the Fac. than in the MS., 

where it is mistakenly erased. App. 2nd sing. pres. subj. 
83'i Ta.\ya r'm, quivering mane. Aho A neirin, 33-1 $. Cp. — 

Fyngwineu-farchya/«^«7i{j^j. S. Tudur. 
83*9 dns = 6riar, pi. dryssi, t whence mod. sing, dryssien, as pysc, 

pi. pyscod gives pyscodyn, and blawd, pi. blodeu gives blodeuyn. 
83! I eiffi//it. Altd. from ? /. 
83' 1 1 gueith wtic. Cp. bzOydyz PwU GOdyc, c. 1076, Bruis 26g'i$. 

The locality is that of Goodwick, in Pembrokeshire. Good'ick 

still preserves the name under an alien spelling. 
84"6-9 Yfkithrich...delich...llunhich...achenich. Subjs., 2nd sing. 
847 tagneaet. Or. wr. t, then altd. 
847 nythvi = in meaning, ni'th vyd. 
84'8 Ro vyd y neuyiLuc = mod. — Rho vwyd i newywog. Cp. the 

Juvencus gloss : 'anit arber fo7" = onid arfer vyd, with wh. Stokes 

compares O. Ir. 'do airbirt biuth. 
84" 1 2 yfrir = ys d\x nithiaw ni bo pur. 
84" 14 Rietillter i.e. xy ehillier. t From Lat. adulter- 
85*9 Y«z'gabil. App. wr. m or. Traces of scratching are still app. 
85"i2 cauid i.e. ca« wyd. 
86'3 Nam ditawl oth vA. ^zx.txx.iox vvX = \)\xh, benefit. Di-8awl 

is glossed expers — X Ir. d&l, division. 
86'6 %e.xieife. The green paint of the big G on the reverse side of 

the leaf has eaten a hole in the vellum which leaves eife imperfect 

at the bottom, while the letters underlined in lines 7-9 are gone 


134 B.B.C. 


867 aratretheif. Scr. err. for ar a tre/theif. 

87'2 ryioles. Another instance of -es for the first person sing. 

See 53" i6. (? Jasp. Gr:) has inserted ', thus reading ryiolm. 
875 dyllit. Cp. dyHlit, 8-12, 14-1. 

87'6 lymacth. The scr. wrote ' rymath,' as also 'dodath,' 2y\ I, 247. 
87'io-ii guassancj^th...dc«th...arv^z^th. See Note 70'3. 
87'I2 ar yKU in eluit. A syllable too many, tyffi^ is wrong, — 

'gormod odleu.' Read: ar yffi in e:\\i\\. = mod. ar yssy'n elfyS. 
87"I2 kyffei = ky(/wei. 
87' 1 3 Ar Aallt ar echuit. Cp. kyfrOnc allt ac allt nc echOyd, Talies- 

stn, 69"io-i I. + accentual k after r ; cp. yr hoW, ar ^ugein, etc. 
88'i enV/waeth. The d is reduplicated because the syllable is closed. 

Read: etwaeth, Tal., 29'3 ; & cp. etwa, Zo'i2 = mod. etto. 
88'2 nifrdraeth. Sic in MS. ^^o*^/ Nif rjdraeth, 27-5. 
88"2 moli. App. scr. err. for ' molin' 
884 Kyuothauc. Scr. err. for Kyvorthauc. See '12. 
88'8-io cv = cw, where? +cu(/, c\xt=prob. cvi yd, cwj/8. Cp. Pers. 

iu, where ? See Whinfield^s Omar Khayydm, 392. 
Yon palace, towering to the welkin blue, 
Where kings did bow them down, and homage do, 

I saw a ringdove on its arches perched, 
And thus she made complaint, coo, coo? coo, coo? [i.e. where are they ?] 
88'9 The marginal words are wr. in 5 Unes in the MS. Exigency 

of space in making up the forme compelled the departure in the 

reproduction. The margin of the MS. has been "shaved." The 

underlined letters, which are guesses, mark the beginning of the 

5 lines in the MS. See Facsimile. 
8g Defcriptio hyeinis ac difsuatio |. belli per id temporis propter — 

cafum mechitis fill llovarchi et aliorum. Wr. by Jaspar Griffith 

at the top margin. 
89'2 Ryfeiw gur ar vn co«z» = ' a reed, stump ; sing, of caww. Cp. 

' tra uei coet at uric y coet y kerdei. A thra uei uynyd ar ulaen 

y kaOn y kerdei. ac yn hyt y oes ny flygOys konyn dan y draet.' 

White Book Mob., 463'26-3i. Cawnen is formed from the plural. 
89'6 kedic awel . coed ini bruch = ? Battling is the wind ; the wood 

is in its tumult. B/uch is presumably a scfi err. for bmch. 



89*9 eiry eiry. Erased. 

89" 1 1 aren. Sex. trc. {ox '■^Ltitn' hoarfrost, fegur, from L. J^c«r-us 

89' 1 2 reo = rhew. Altd. by a late hand. 

89" 13 gint. Clerical error for g«int 

90'5 Uyrit'. Added by a late hand, mistakenly, t Llyri is a mono- 
syllable like eiry, llary, etc. Meaning uncertain. 

907 after 'adar' a word has been erased. 

90' 1 3 cunlleiA ? Scr. err. for cunlleiM. Cp. io5'4 ; Red Book : a 
chanon kunlleith 579'i7 ; ygkynlleith gayaf, io3r2o. 

90"i3 cev ewur. Cp. llu ew-ur io7'i6 ; Taliessin : Pan yO baruaOt 
[gOz]. pan yO keu ef()2, 2i"5 ; R.B., chwec evwr chwerthinat tonn, 
io35'36 ; and V>mevwr., currently wr. DinevM, on the Towy. Cp. 
Br. Evor={a.) cow-parsnip, (b) hellebore. 

90'14 nof /lum. Begun as f. 

grio cul I grum = culgrum = OTorf. culgrwm. 

9ri4 derw^id ych kigho2 = derffid ych kynghor. 

92'2'6'io pelis = py lys, unless it is a proper name. 

92.5 arid a riv = ar rid a x\\ = tnod. ar ryd a rhiw. r39'i7- 

92'8 bro priw uchei. Cler. err. Read: uchei«. Cp. nuchein Tal., 

92"9 ariweu i.e. arfeu. fryShao Duw. 

92'ii gar. The top is blotched and indistinct. Read: Y gwr a 

92'i4 Rodwut. Third limb wanting. The u is irregular. Read: 
Rodwzt as in "5 above. 

93" I Mug. This is wr. Mugc in "6. The word for smoke = muf, 
33"8, not mu^. See Index, s.v. mug. 

93'3 am diallad. See diallaw, 41' 14. 

937 a lataut mechit. Metre and rhyme require ' mechit a las! 

93'io There is something like a stop quite close to the v. 

93' 1 3 ffruincl«ym«s. Cler. err. for frruinclyma«s = ffrwynglymws. 

Cp. bendigws 36"!, -ays 35'9. 
' 94'5 Mi ae guar^di a thi ae gueli. App. a scr. err. for Ti ae guaredi. 

95"4 Arthur, ced huarhei=cyd hwaryei. 

95'9 can/. More like c than t. ? erasure here. 

95'i2 bragat. Cp. blaen bragat briwei mab fyvno, Aneirin, 6"8 ; 
banadyl rac biagatyn rychua bziwat, 7a/., 257 ; GarOy ar adwy 
gOzaOl redyat ffyayf. taer bziOgyzyf tarO bzagat, R.B. 1288' 1-2. 



95'i5 lleg. ? From Lat. leg-io, and corrupted early into lle«g. 

96'8 Ny bei. . ./•«. Kei...verev. Omit. Three syllables are missing 
prob. before 'ny bei.' Read: ? Nu a phei ny bei | duv ae digonhei 
I oet diheit aghev | Kei guin a Uachev. 

96'ii y gunnhiLW jfyiiiTV ingun. We want the name of a district, or 
place here. Query scr. err., for we should not have more than 
S syllables. If the / be a cler. err. for c or k, we have yfcawin, wh. 
suggests the Ifceuin of the Bk. of LI. Div, a place not far from 
Gloucester, the home of the tMV guiton of '12. See Mabinogion, 
2io'i5, io8'3, i38'22, where Ifkawin ab Panon is mentioned, the 
man who, perhaps, gave his name to Forth Ysccwin, now Port 
Skewet. Cp., however, Siivingewidin in Herefordshire, (Elsdon 
hund.) See Domesday (fol. i8i r" col. 2), wh. the Rev. C. Plum- 
mer kindly examined for me. 

96'i5-i6 kinllaf. Scr. err. for kin llu/Vi; which rhymes with 'buyd.' 
lluid = dawn or dusk. Cp. ' ma'r dyS yn llwydo.' The day is 
dawning ; and llwydnos, dusk. Cwybei is used in mod. Welsh 
always with dy- prefixed, i.e. ^-gwySei. 

96"i6 . a. Quire vii ends here, but the poem is incomplete. 

97'l The beginning of the poem is wanting. 

97"4 go\vdauc. The scribe here devotes two lines to every stanza, 
and rather than spoil the symmetry of his page he writes the end 
syllable of '4 on the blank at end of "2. Sometimes many lines 
intervene between the first and second half of a word (cp. 98'4). 

97" 10" 1 2 %. = %uallauc. 

98"4 ^eXeidrad. Wr. on top margin. See note 97*4. 

984 penaur, helmet. Cp. Aneirin: gwyngalch a phedryollt ben- 
nawr, 3'i7; Taliessin: yt lethrynt lafnaCiz ar pennaOz difgowen, 

98*5 hv yfcun gur. Cp. huyfcur loo'ii. l33'5- 

987 ■Z£/imarch = ?«0(/. vy march. Begun as^. 

98'I2 Nim gad^ ga.T\ = mod. Nim gad i gan. Begun as j/. 

98'i3'i4 Tawuy, Tawue. Towy enters the sea at Llan Stephan 
and Tawfe flows into Swansea Bay. If the poet lived at Car- 
marthen Priory the nessaw would indicate the Towy, and the 
eithaw, the Taw^. '17 For XLIX raedTHlAX''. 



99'l y gan wyavarvy. Silvan Evans treats this as "fy avarwy = my 
sorrow." Cp. Nyt ynat neb dzut ny dzefnOy. gOafcaOt r kynn 
gOifcaO auarOy, J?.B., 1176-1-2 ; ar erdrych auarwy, Myv. 161*. 

99"3 hn/iu'id for hnu/iid. Cp. hOaer and Ohaer. 

997 iftrun = ys dr*iun. Cp. Aneirin: e wayw drwn ozeureit, 27-19 ; 
i rac taryf trun, 34-10. % Ir. (/ro« = strong, firm. 

99-8-9 Dorm:ach oet hunnv. Or. wr. Dormarch. The r is erased 
in both instances. Omit oet hunnv. 

99-10 dy gruidir ar wibir winit = [neus] dygrwydr ar wybr vyny8. 

99-1 1 Mi awum iny lie Has guendolev. Omit, but see -13, -15. 

99-11-13-15 Cp. iny He . . . in He . . . He, &-» see also 100-3-5-7. 

99''3'iSi 100-1-5-7 awum=a7/z'um=a vu-um, to/ vftm 99-11. 

99-12-14 ryer,4int. ?A metathesis for ry-re-int, unless there is a 
verb ar-«. Cp. bref-, gal-, llef-an<. See Notes 60-19, 72"i4, loo-i. 

100-1-2 ry-re-ei«t. Cp. Ny reel warthec heb Oyneb rud, TaL, 39-19; 
a rea y V2an vaOa a rea y V2an vechan, R.B. Proverb. The simple 
verb rhe-u denotes to cry like a bird, or bellow like a beast. Cp. 
S. rA, O.E. rarian., M.H.G. reren, E. roar. Cp. also "W.gweryru, 

100-4 lloegir. Begun as ^. [to neigh. 5^« N., 72-14. 

100-4 teithiauc = teith-i-auc, z.«. trisyllabic. 

100-6-8 Mi. wi. wiw. vinteu. y. bet . . .y aghev. V<J\ = wyf; wiw = 
fyw ; y = y = ym . . . yn. Read : mi wy' vyw, wynteu ymeS ... Mi 
wy' vyw, wynteu y« awgheu. With 'wi. %tnv' = mod. wj/Zyw, 
compare ^aAd.' = mod. ar rid, 92-5. 

loo-il huyfcur. Cp. hv yfcun gur, 98-5. 

100-12 awirtul. Mod. a/>-Sw/= solicitous, anxious, sad. S. EVANS. 

101-3 pebrur. See pebir gur, 98-6. 

101-4 glev . . .ydvani in dev. Om\tyd. vam^T/am, for vuam. 

101-6 Fechid diristan. Prof. J.M.J, thinks that we have here, 
apparently, a compound name, 'Fechid Diristan.' 

ior6 o/>5iwod = oth Syvod. d;bd. Scribe wrote first limb of _>'. 

I02-2 Itewon, i.e. ISewon. The form IwSewon arose in the xvith cent. 
We find it in MSS., in Salesbury's New Testament, in the mod. 
Bible, but not in the editions of Bps. Morgan and Parry. As 
well write Jadgual and J«dhael for Idwal and Ithel. tThe com- 
bination iu is impossible in Welsh. See Grammar, § 40, i. 



io2'2 itaw caer lev a gwidion=yfi if. Cp. aeth von, 96'i2, — a 

common construction in old Welsh with verbs of motion. 
I02-3 dabre de. The pronoun is, as a rule, inserted after verbs, but 

it seldom counts in the verse. See "6. 
1027 g02yfgelho7. Omit last letter = unfinished 2. 
1027 vyhtno = mod. f'enw, i.e. one syllable: /^enw is heard in the 
dialects of GwyneS and Morgannwg only. In Deheubarth the vy- 
of vyn is dropped, i.e. 'John yw «enw i, Torri «enw, »had etc." 
; , Instances of ^enw are very rare in vellum MSS. 

[■" I02'i2 merch/r. Late addition. 

^ I03'l yiax:y\ BleiynapCynfyn. Pi.AAtdhot\\ 

W here and at I04'2 by a xvilth century hand. Madauc died, 1159. 

;? io3'4 anhaur. Cp. y4««w/-gynhoruan huan arwyran, /4«fz>7>i, 57 ; 

1eftalha(i2oa««<52garma&ngarant, 7'«/. i7'9; anaAadzy dbyn, 2i'i2. 
io3'io drein .... guae loegir in dit iein. App. a scr. err. for 
kyngrein. Cp. Red Book : Y2 aelwyt honn neus cud drein : mwy 
go2dyfnaffei yc/tyngrein, 104 1 '26, & Myv., A rac pyrth ban syrth 
Saeflbn ygkrein, 226«. Drein has krein or cyngrein for its 
rhyme-word in many other places. 
103' 1 7 ar claur vagv. There is a farmhouse on the Dulas, which 
\ is called Garvagy on a tombstone in Nantmel churchyard. 

,;" Dr. J. D. Rhys spelt it Gorh Fagu at the end of the xvith century. 

io4'3 This big initial K is, in the MS., like the one reproduced in 
facsimile on page ioo'9, with floriated additions in red. [^SH- 

' io5'3 ar>Tad = ar -l-^rad, i.e. a dissyllable. Cp. an^lan = an +^lan, 

io5"4 calchwreith,7i»z. of calchfrith, enamelled in various colours. 
IOS'5 diobeith". This superior ° is patched with red. Ditto in 
; lines 8, 10, 12, 14, 16. Also after -eith io4'6'9'i2'i6, ios'3 where, 

\ however, the black of the ° is not visible in all cases. The 

1 meaning, if any, is not app. It is certainly no part of the word. 

i lOS'S Haulowz>z = HawlOvy/n, rhyming with' m/nn' ;«■ in the ultima 

I interchanges with_K, as kedmn, kedyrn ; thus Ow_yn = Ow«n. 

4 ioS'6 Read: Hil te-irn in he-irn heno/eith. 

\ io5'8 veuder. Cp. Rudyon beuder biO a maOj yrat, 7a/., 39'20. 

.' io5'8 anhyweith=««r«/y. Cp. anhzyet, 7S'I2. 

B.B.C. J 2g 

ioS'8 Darfv|»am oeleith = Darfuam oe leith. See Fac. The », wh. 

is by a late hd., should come after v at the end of line 8, not 

before am at the beginning of the next. 
io5"9 Dara'=darz'7/ = darfu. Cp. io5'8. [here. 

loS'io beirt-car. The hyphen is abnormal and prob. Ir. ? erasure 
io5"io bart clvm diledieith = ta bard of elegant song. Clwrn is 

that which is bound up in cynghaned. Cp. ' cwlwm cerd. 
105T4 Oet buelin b/as. Scr. err. for 'bras.' Cp. cirn bras, loi'i i. 
io6'4-5 gol^wad. Joined at the top. 

io6'6 Ac edrych uir de varanres. Baranres = /i«^a. Ox. gloss. 
1067 c»«endigeid i.e. f»=a» + bendigeid = a«-blessed, accursed. 
io6'8 cvin from L. cena. Cp. ivenestir with L. minisir-um. 
io6'9 vachdeith, i.£. machdeith, "damsel." — J.R. 
io6"i4 traha a/treguch = 4 syllables : i is more like i in MS. 
lo6"i6 kadaul. Altd. into the affected form, k^daul. The punctum 

delens is very small and faint. 
lo7*ii calch llywarch hen. Written above line by Dr. J. Davies 

Calch — armour. Cp. Ry s ua wr ualch yg calch yg cadeu, Myv., 207*. 
io7"i2 ev «•» treuad. Word erased. 
io7'i5 3.C. The end is clubbed, as if a stop followed. 
108 The outer third of this page is stained almost black by gall or 

lime water. The original writing is read with some difficulty. 
lo8'2 ? gz>«un. The vellum is very dark here : the i and first limb 

of m are not certain. + Cp. cwyr aberth in S. Evans's Dictionary. 
lo8'3 Gozev rywir. A cler. err. for ft-ywir=tri-wyr. See Red 

Book I038-29-30. 
loS'io o.duc^ = oSuch. The c is faint, and the h erased. 
lo8"ii 0\X\d. Faint : app. an altd. letter. 
io8'i2 mi nyd. Vellum almost as black as the writing. 
io8'i3 Nyduid «»• yfcoleic. Repetition of 9r5"6. Something 

erased, — uid probably. 
10815 Pell . . . hetiv. See Red Book, xoyyi-i. 

1 40 B.B.C. 


* — See Paleographical Note. ep. — epithet. 

ab = mab, 4"3, 652, 66-ii, 67'2, 

68'8, 97'6, (69'i92i). 6V^ am. 
Aber, loriz. 

Clev [= ? Cletev], SS^ii. » 

Dulas, 56-3. 

duwir Dyar, 68'lo. 

Erch, 64'8. y Berch » 

Frav, 74-8. Berffro 

Gweith, 61 '3. 

Gwenoli, 63' 13. 

Llyv, io8'i5. 

Taradir, 52'i2. 
Adaon, iv\. 

Adaw4i-i4, plant4r7, 53''5, 77'5 
Adonay, 37^8. 
Aedan, vir, 15 '9. 
agor, Uuoet, 77- 1 : cp. Llvagor. 
Airgwl, 69- 1 7. 

Alld Tryvan, 647. [67-18. 

alltudion diessic, Eitew ac Eidal, 
Alun Dywed, mab Meigen, 65 '12. 
Alun Diwed, tad Run, 6512. 
am = ab q.v., 69' 12, 94 ■6' 12. 
ameraudur, 72'9. See Arthur, 
amgant, yr, 64'i5 ; yn 66'i6. 
anau 67-1, anav 9'8, IS'4, i6-l2 ; 

rad ac anaw, 77 '12. 
Anguas edeinauc, 94'i4. 

Annhun, Duu Paul ac, 38'I4. 

Anoeth, teulu Oeth ac, 66'4. 

anotun, bas ac, 38'9. 

Aranwinion, 5ri8. 

Arav, inab Llywarch hen, 107T4 

Ardudwy 4712, -vy 47-3, 74-8, -uy 

Aren 89' 11 ; Brin, 63'8. L^S-M- 

Argad, mab LI. hSn, I07'i3. 

Argoydit 50-10, Arcoedit 52'io. 

Aron a Moesen, 36'i. 

Aron, mab Diwinvin, 68"I7. 

arth o Deheubarth, 59" 13. 

Arthan, tad Eitivlch hir, 66'i3. 

Arthur 6713, 94-3, 95-3 ; amerau- 
dur Uywiaudir Uawur 72'9; tad 
Llachev 9916 ; teulu io3'i6. 

Arwul melin, march Passcen, 28'2 : 
cp. hid in Aruul melin, 92'3. 

Arywderit, gueith, 4-8, 5o'6, 62'i3. 

aten, 69'2 ; cp. aden, I4"2. 

aton, 71-5. ♦ 

atnev, 72"8. 

awallen 43, 49, afallen 48, 50-52. 

auarvy, 99'i. • 

avon, cad, 6r2. 

Awarnach, in neuat, 95'5. 

Awraham, 35'9. 

awen, Tedei tad, 637. • 



baban. See maban. 

Bangor, 77-2, SririS. 

bann cogev, 83-18; teulv bann, 
io3'5 ; ar vann caer lo6'l i"i3 ; 
banev bre, 89"4. 

Banon, tad Kysceint, 94 '8. 

baraffvin, Vnic, 535. 

bart, 9-9, 7812, 79-5-8, 87-12; 
clvm, 105-10; beirt 22-6, 42-8, 
51-13, 78-12; loo-ii ; kiwrev 
beirt, 22-6 ; gostec beirt, 78-12 ; 
yscinvaen beirt, loo-ii; bard- 
eir, 42-8; bartoni, 12-9, 37-6; 
bartrin, 67-8-10: cavkeineidg-g 
See Cuhelin, kert, pridit. 

Baton, 77-6. 

bedrydant. See Beduir. 

bedit, 27-1. 

bedwen, 47-i-7-ii. 

beteu, englynion y, 63-69. 

Bedwir 64-7, Beduir 95-15, B. 
bedrydant, 95-9. See hyneiw. 

Beidauc rut, 66-16-19, ab Emer 
Llydau, 67-1. 

(Beli, ab Benlli gawr, 69-21). 

Bely, tad Kaswallaun, 28-13. 

Benlli gaur, teulu bann, 103-5 > 
(tad Beli, 69-21). 

Bevno, Llan, 63-8. 

bichan brychni, 6rio. 

bychan breichvras, 62-1. 

biv, 47-3, 90-2. 

bre, banev 89-4, guernin 68-4. 

bodauc, tri, 65-3. 

brad, argluid 85-1 ; oWinet55-9; 
gulad veibonin 60-5 ; keli 43-8. 


Bradweji, 69-3. 

Bran, m. Ywerit clod lydan, 99-14. 
Bran, vab Llir Uedieith, 104-16. 
breenhin na breenhin [Henri, son 

of Henri II.] 62-15. 
breichir, 27-11. 5^^ Tauautir. 
breichvras, ep.of Karadauc, 28-12. 
brein, Ilithiav, 103-13. 
breinhin, 65-17. 
Breint 68-13, gur Bangor 77-2. 
Briauael. See Kelli Uriauael. 
Bricheinauc, 65-10 ; Bry-, tir, 74-1. 
Bridein. See Inis, Prydein. 
Bridlav, 95-15. See hyneiw. 
Brin 58-4, 74-5 ; y dan y 64-4 ; in 

arterchauc 65-3 ; in Iljethir y 

68-14 ; kewin 90-8. 
Brin Aren, 63-8 : cp. 89-11. 
Brin Tytul, 92-4. 
Brineirch, guir, 59-4. 
brithion eiliv brodozion, Uu, 25-11 
Brithon, 60-9-15-16, 61-14, Bry- 

thon, 11-5, 52-6, 61 '5. 
Brithuir, 60-16. 

Britu, ryd, 66-17. * 

Bro priw uchei/z, 92-8. * 

brodorion, 25-12, 51-5, 55-9, 60-8. 
Bruin o Bricheinauc, tad Meilir 

Maluinauc,65-io: Bruyno,68-i. 

See Noteb%-\,&' cp. Brwyn llys. 
Brycheinauc,tir,74-i ; Bri-, 65-10. 
Brython 11-5, 52-6, 61-5, Brithon, 

6o-9-i5-i6, 61-14. 
Bucheslum seri, march Gugaun 

cletywrut, 27-9. 
Buellt, 75-2. 



Cad Abergweith, 6i'3. 

aryton,6ri. Cp. /?.^., io43'2i. 

avon, 6 1 '2. 

Caer lleon, 6r3. 

coed lluiuein, 6o'3. 

Cors Mochno, 6r2. 

Kyminaud, 6r3. 

Kynuid, 92'io. 
. Jeithion, 6r4. 

im Mon, 6i'2. 

Machavvy, 6i'i. 
Kadgyffro, tad Gilberd, 28"9. 
Kadieith, I05'i5. 
Kadwaladir, 48-2, 5ri6, 52'3, 

58"i2, -ualadir, 6o'5. 
Kadwallaun, filius K., 27'i2. * 
Caduan, i'4. See 2Ti2» 

kadwaon, 51' 17. 
Caeav, 65 '17. 
caer, 46' i; pimp c, 39*2; ar vann 

c, io6'iri3. 5^£ Castell. 
Kaer Kenedir, 63'i2, io7'4. 

Lev a Gwidion, I02'2. 

lleon, kad, 6r3. 

Reon, 6o'20. 

Sallauc, 55'5. 

Seon, io2"2. 

Wantvy, 99'2. 

Wyrtin, 57 '9. 
Kain, 44'i6, Ka-i, 45'8. » 

Camlan, 64 "6. 

Karadauc B[reichvras], 28' 12. 
Caringrun, m'ch Guin m. Nud,987 
Carnawlauc, march 0.m.Vr.,27"8. 
Karrauc, 63'i4. ('ioo'2. 

Karreian clod edmic, tad Meuric, 


carrec camhur loo'io. 

Castell Gollwin, 58-5. 

Kaswallaun, mab Bely, 28' 13. 

cath Paluc, 96'i3'i5. 

caur. See Benlli, Eluan. 

Cav, 63-4- 

Cavall, 93'4, 1087. 

ked, in Rid vaen, 65"! I. 

Keduyv, v^. 

Kei, 287, 95T13, 96'4'ii, Guin 

94'3, 96-9 ; Keiwin 46'8, 96"i2 ; 

gur hir, 96-5. 
Keidav, tad Guendolev, 99'i2. 
Kein [ ? karin i.e. karn] caled, 

march Gualchmei, 28"9. 
Kein, clun, 68'6. 
keineid, cav, 9'9. 
keli, 45'2 ; brad, 43'8 ; tri trined 

in celi, 36'i2»; trindaud keli, 

447 ; Crist kely, 83'I4. 
Keliton, coed,6"io, 49"ii, 516T5, 
Kelli, 95'2 : Uriauael, 67-3. L52'2. 
Kelvi, kewin, 69'6. 
Kemeis tir, 69'8. 
Kenedir, kaer, 63'I2, I07"4. 
Kerediciaun, 74'6. 
Keri cletifhir, 63 -g. 

Keri,yg, 66-17 ;dygen,75"l- 

kert 9-11, 15-10, 48-3, 79-9, «5-io, 
kyuergir 102-11, kerd 86-8. 

kertev 12- 11 ; colowin kertev = 
Guendolev 99-12 ; uthir ig ker- 
tev = Llachev 99-16. 

kertaur 78-7, 79-8; kertorion 26*5, 
51-2, 61-11, 62-2, 78-9, 104-11. 

Certenhin avon, 66-6. 

Kerwid, 63'3. 

Kewin Kelvi, 69"6. 

kian, 67 '6. 

kigrun, 11 v, 64' 1 3. 

kimerev trin, 57'I2. 

Kimri 57-13, 594, Kimry 52-5, 

S2'i3, 73'i3- Kymri 49-14, 58-12, 

y Gimry, 48-9. 
Kinan, 52-4, 53-7, Ky-, 18-3, 58-12. 
Cinbin, 95-8. 
Kindilic, 108-14, mab Corknud, 

67-7, Gindilic, 91-6. 
Kinlluc, !o8-io. 5«-« 96-15. * 
Kinon, 63-16, 64-3, 103-9, mab 

Clytno idin, 64-5, Kynon, 67-1 5, 

mab Clytno idin 64-1. 
Kinon garv y duyael, 69-7. 
Kinran,63-i2,67-9-ii,96-i6, 107-4 
kinreinon, 6-7 ; ? kinz/rein, 59-12. 
kinteic 65-8, 92-1. 
Kintilan, 64-12. . 
Kinvael, 69-7. 
Kinveli, 69-7. 

Kinvelin, 6-4, tad Coel, 68-15. 
kinytion Mordei, 53-2. 
Civrid, 63-3. 
Clas Guinet, 57-4. 
C\e/ev, Aber [Deu], 55' 1 1. « 

cletif hir, ep. of Keri, 63-9. 
cletyfrut 67-13, cletywrut 27-10, 

ep. of Gugaun. 
Cleveint a won, 68-15. 
clod edmic, ep. of Karreian, ioo-2 
clod lydan, ep. of Ywerit, 99-14. 
Cluit, diffrin, 74-12. 
Clun kein, 68-6. 


Clytno idin, tad K/non, 64-2-5. 

Coed Keliton,6-io, 49-10, 51-6-15, 

Coed Lluiuein, kad, 60-3. [52-2. 

Coel, mab Kinvelin, 68-15. 

cogev, 33-6, 83-18. 

Collwin i.e. Castell GoUwin, 58-5. 

Convy, nant, 74-12. 

Corbre, ymynwent, 63-11. 

Corknud, tad Kindilic, 67-7. 

corr, 101-9. 

Cors Mochno, kad, 6r2. 

Creurdilad, merch Lut, 98-8. 

Crist, 18-3, 34-11, 41-4,70-6, 73'9; 
croes 82-2; kely 83-14; guin 
34-1-7, mab Meir29-6, Cristi 37-7 

Cristaun, 85-5, 88-6. 

Cristonogion, 71-8. 

Cuelli, 95-2. 

Cuhelin i4-ii,bart9-9,doeth 15-5. 

cuir, llythir ig, 38-12. 

(Cunedda, tad Einyavn, 69-19.) 

cvnlleith, 105-4: cunlleit, 90-13 » 

Ky-. See Ki-. 

Kyheic, ior2-8. cp. kinteic. 

(Kyhoret, 69-18.) » 

kyfnissen, 69-2. 

kyminauc, 94-16. 

kyminaud 48-9-17, kad, 61-3. 

Kymraec, 9-9, 15-6. 

Kymri,49-i4, 58-12, Ki-, 57-13, 59-4 
Kimry, 525-13, 73"i3, 48'9- 

Kynan, 18-3, 58-12, Ki-, 52-4, 53-7 

Kynan garrvin, tad Selyw, 28-4 

Kynan gyhoret, ryt, 69-18. 

Kyndur, 33. 

(Cynfric, tad Llewelin), 46-19. 


kyniscin, yg, 64-4. 

Kynon, 67'i5, mab Clytno idin, 
64-1, Kinon, 63-16, 64-3, 697, 
I03'9, m. Clytno idin, 645. 

Kyntelv pridit maur, io3'i. 

Kynuid, kad, g2'io. 

kynvrein, kiwranc y, 59'i2. 

Kyrridven, 9'6, lyz. 

Kysceint, mab Banon, 947. 

Cyueilauc, 74' 13. 

Kyven Venvy, 75 'i. 

kyuergir, kert, I02'll. 

kywluc kinhen, yg, 65'5. 

kywrenhin, dev kenev in, 57"io. 

Daear diarchar, 68'9. 

darogan, 72. 

Dehev, 48-13, loo'S, guledic, 78'3. 

Deheubarth, 59'i3, -parth, 78'8. 

Deheveint, 681 5. 

Deinoel,m. Dunauddeinwin, 56'! 

deinwin, ep. of Dunaud, 56'2. 

Denvy, 758. 

desseffor, Llog, i6'ii. 

dev kenev in kywrenhin, 57'io. 

[Deu] CWev, Aber, 55"ii. * 

Deudor, llugirn, 77'!. 

Deutur (MS. ineutur), 2'2. * 

Devs 427, Ren 9'i, Dews 86"lo. 

Dewi, 547. 

dias, 48-5, 62'2. 

Didmuy, Riv, 59'ii. [Eitew. 

diessic alltudion. See Eidal ac 

diessic Unben = Mor maur'ic,65 7. 

diffrin,diffrint, 9i'i. See dyffnn. 

Diffuis, 355, 549, 58m, 6310. 

Dilan, 63'8. Dinon, 3"4. 
Dinorben, yn aelwyt, 69'i7. 
Dinvythuy, 47'! i. 
direid 810, 20'4, 7o'ir, 83^8 : di- 

reid new, direid daear, 7o'4. 
diristan, Fechid, lor6. » 

dirnaud, pimp, 40'lo. 
Dissethach, 957. 
Dived, Diwed. See Dyved. 
Div Maurth, 57'3; dyv Llun49'i3; 

dyv Merchir 463, io2'ii ; dyv 

iev, 46"4, dywiev 48^8, 6ri5. 
Diwinvin, tad Aron, 68'i7. 
Diwneint, 72'! i. 
diweir teulv, tri, io4"i. 
Domenvs, 427. 

Domni, 37-8, 39-4. [99'8'9- 

Dorma*ch truinrut, ci Maelgun, 
Douit, 1 8-2, 247, 27-6, 39-6, 70-3, 

79'i4, 88'5, dovit 53'i6, dowit 

70-4, 97 '16. 
drvd arall. See Run. 
Drudluid, march Ryterch h., 28"5. 
Druduas, 937. 

Du hir terwenhit, m'ch Selyw, 28'3 
Dulas, Aber, 56'3. 
Dulin, guir, 49"4. 
Dunaud deinwin, t. Deinoel, 56"!. 
duffyr Dyar 56' 10, duwir 627. 
duwir Dyar, Aber, 68' 10. 
dvy caun, Dyued, 746. 
Duyrein, 297, ioo'6'8. 
Dyar, Aber duwir, 68' 10. <:/. 627. 
Diffrin Cluit, 74' 12. 
Dyffrin Gewel, 65'15. 
Diffrin Guy, 47'i. 


Dyffrin Hawren, 75T. 

Diffrin Machavuy, 48"6. 

Dyffrin Mynvy, 74"4. 

Dyfridauc, 54" 12. 

Dyganhvy, 47-4, 74'9, -uy. 55'i5- 

Dyved 63'i, Dyued 6o-ii, dvy 
caun, 74'6 ; Diwed tir, 61-4; 
gvehin Dived 53"5 ; pendeuic 
D., 59-16 : (Dyuet, 69-17). 

Dywed, Diwed, ep. of Alun, 65-12 

Dyuel,abErbin,4-i, Dywel, 65-16 

Dywal, ep. of Silit, 68-3. 

dyv. See div. 

(Earrwen, verch Hennin, 69-15.) 
ebediv am Maelur, 69-12. 
Edar, 46-10. Cp. Etar, An., 37-1. 
Edeinauc, 18-7 ; ep. of Anguas, 
Edeirnaun, 74- 1 1 . L94' ' 3- 

Edirn, in, 79-3. 
Edrywuy, 47-13 ; in E., 68-3. 
Edwin imon 47-4, breenhin 75-7. 
Egluis, ygodir Hen, 63-g. 
ehon tuthbleit. See Ruthir e. t. 
Eidal tal yfcvn, dieffic alltud, 

Eidauc, meibon, 55-4. 
Eidin cyminauc, 94- 1 4, mini t, 95 '7 
Eilinvy, 68-4. [see I tin. 

Eilivert vz'«it, 27-1. • 

eilon 16-2, 47-8, 60-12-19, 61-5. 
(Eingyl, 48-17). 
(Einyavn, ab Cunedda, 69-19). 
Eitew, diessic alltud, 67-i7-i8. 
Eithir,mab Llywarchhen, 107-12. 
Eitivlch hir, mab Arthan, 66-12. 


Eitoel, 11-2. 

Eiwonit elvit tir 69-4, Ewionit74-7 

Elaeth, 7o-ri2. 

Elcliwith, 67-14. * 

Elffin, 67-8-10. 

Elgan, 2-6, 3-7, 4'i- 

Eliffer, seith meib, 5-9. 

Eliffner, ab Ner, 68-8. 

Eloy, 37-6, 71-4. 

Elwael, 75-2. 

Eluan gaur, 103-4. 

eluit, 246, 35-7, 60-2, 87-13, 88-13, 

90-11, 91-4, 103-3, elvit tir, 69-5. 
Elvy, Llan, 68-4. 

Emer Llydau, t. Beidauc rut, 67-2 
Emreis, 96-3. 
Epint, 65-15. 
Erbin, tad Dy«el 4-3, 65-16, tad 

Gereint, 71-11. 
Erbin, suyt, 66-7. 
Erch, Aber, 64-8. » 

Ergig, 74'3- 

Ergrid avon, in, 64-2. [72-3. 

Erir Tywi a Teiwi, 5 1 - 1 7 » eriron, 
Errith, 2-3. 

Erthir, ap Ll'ch h6n, 107-12. 
Ervid, 68-3. 

(Eryri, pendeuic, 48-18). 
escyp 56- 1 2, 84-3, agkyueith 61-9 » 
ethlin, 55-14. * 

etyl, 82-9-11, etil, 82-I5. . • 

Euas, 74-3. 
Eva, 43-12. 

Ewionit 74-7, Eiwonit 69-4. 
Ewur, Uv, 107-16. See Pal. Notes 
&• cp. Ir. Ibar. 


Fallum, guit, 8ri4. » 

Fechid diristan, ior6. » 

femen, 36'2. femin-a. 

fdius, 27'i2, 28-2, 7rii, fill, 37'8. 

finaun weneftir, io6'8. * 

finhaun, teir, 35"5. 

fonogion Mugc, 93'6. See Mechit. 

Frangc, 56-2, y Freigc, 47-9. 

Frav, Aber, 74-8. Berffro. 

Freid, San, 83' 12. 

Fyrnuael hael, ab Hyvlyt, 66'i i. 

Garanhir, ep. of Guitnev, 98"! I. 
garhirion, 72'i3— 737. 
Garthan, brein, 99'iS. 
Garvluid, 9S'io. 

Garvy saer, 47'i6 ; Arvy, 73- 13. 
garrvin, ep. of Kynan, 28'4. 
gauaeluaur, ep. of Gleuluid, 94'2. 
gaur, (Gawr, 69'22), ep. of Benlli, 

1035 ; ep. of Eluan, I03'4. 
Gereint, vaur 72';, o dir Diwneint 
Gewel, dyffrin, 65'i6. L72"ii. 

Gilberd, mab Kad gyffro, 28-8. 
Gimry, y, 48"9. See Kymri. 
Gint, 48'!, 55'ii. » 

Glan Teiwi, 6o'io. See Teiwi. 
Gleuluid gauaeluaur, 94'i. 
godir, 63 7 -9. 

Godybrion, ep. of Guin, 94'8. 
godvff hir, ep of Guynev, 287. 
Goglet, 29-8, 53-19, 55-11, 100-6. 
Gohoev etystir, Tri, 28-6. 
Goholheth, tad Gwallauc, lcx)-4. 
gollewin, 77-3. 
GoUwin, castell, 58-6. 

Gormant, 77-7. 

Goronvy, t. Hywel welmor, 73-14 

goror nant 64-15 ; gwris 64-17 ; 

kimry73-i3; mynit9o-3:#5rJ7 
gorsset, 11-7, 30-6, 34-6-12, io2'8. 
gorterch, 50-6 ; g. Creurdilad i.e. 

Guin mab Nud, 98-8. 
goruir, 77-6, g. Edwin, 75-7. 
gosper, 21-9. 
gotev, gueith, 101-15. 
Gowanon, seith guaew, 6-6. 
grande, 51-18: cp. 73-4. 
Greid, 10-11-12. 
guaedlan, 4-7, 64-11 ; guaedlad, 

5-2 ; guadlan, 5-2. 
Gualchmei, 28-10, Gwalch-,63-15. 
Gwallauc 97ni, His 97-4, ab Llein- 

auc, 97-6, Lleinnauc, 97-8-10, 

Lleynnauc, 97-12. 
Gwallauc, mab Goholheth, 100-3. 
Gwallauc hir, 63-14. 
guanas 66-3-6. See Gvhir. » 
Guarvy,5o-6,Warruy, 59-10, 74-5. 
gueilgi, 91-4 : g. dowyn, 76-13. 
gueith, 27-3,58-8,101-15; g.aryw- 

derit, 4-7, 506, 62-13 ; g. finaun 

wenestir, 106-10; g. machavvi, 

59-10 ; g. wtic, 83-1 1 » ; gveith, 

13-6, gweith, 100-16. 
Gueith, Kad Aber, 61-3. 
gueli94-5 : gveli 102-5 • gweli64-i I. 
gwelitin, isel, 64-1. 
gvvelugan, 2-4. [107-10. 

Gwen, 63-6, ab Lly'ch hen 64-14, 
Gwenabuy, 59-9. 
Guendit, 50-1-14, 59-3-15. 



Guendolev, 50-5, 51-4, 5316, mab 
Keidav, colowin kertev, 99'ii. 

Guener, 217. 

gvenin, 9o'6-i2 ; guenen 35'ii. 

guenith, 72-13. 

Gwenoli, Aber, 63' 13. 

Guent, 74-3. * 637 

gwenwas, 87'3. cp. gwessgvin. 

gwenvlad, 78'S, guenglad, 43-9 « 

gwerid, 5 r8 ; gverid, 64'3. 

guerindaud, 407 =virginitai-em. 

gueriton, 7r6. 

Guernin Bre, yg, 68"4. 

gwessgvin, 104' 1 5. (t^. gwenwas. 

gwestedin Caeaw, 65'i6. 

gweun. See Hirgweun, 68'i7. 

Gugaun cletywrut, 27'io, 67'i2. 

Gvhir, 74'4 ; guanas G., 66"2. * 

Gwidion, caer Leu a, io2"3. 

gain, Crist, 34"i 7; duvguin,4ri2; 
gur guin, 44-8. 

guin, ep. of Kei, 94-3, 969, win, 
46-8, 96-12. 

Gwinn Gvinionavc, pant, 65"4. 

GwinabNut,99'4, GuinmabNud, 
gorterch Creurdilad, 988'io. 

Guin Godybrion, 94'8. 

Guyn o Winllyuc, t. Madauc,65'6. 

Guindodit, 66"i. 

Gwinet, 46'2, 52'i4; brado, 55"9; 
clas Guinet, 57^4 ; guir 46'6, 
588; tir SS'lo; terwin 576. 

Guineu, i'4,83"r3'6. &tfGuyneu. 

Gvinionauc, 6S'4. See pant G. G. 

Gwinllyuc, 65'6. Gwynllnvg. 

Gwiri, 7 1 ■6. See Meir. 


Gvitel, ep. of Llia, 65'i4. (i25'2g) 
GwitilaBrithon a Romani, 6ri4. 
Guitnev garanhir, 9811. 
Guitnev, Maes, 1067. 
guiton, nav, 96'i2. » 

gulad, ciureithau, 58'i4; brad 

gulad veibonin, 6o-5. # 

Gulad Morgant,74'4. Glamorgan 
guledic, Hyuel, 75'4. 
guledic 267, 40'4, 83'i i, arbennic 

857, 86'6, gliledic Dehev, 78-3. 
gurBangor, Breint, 77'i.t;^. 68'i3. 
gur gwaud, 63'i6. 
gurgurt, 64'4, 97"i5 ; gurth68'io. 
gur hir, ep. of Kei, 96'5. 
gurach 95'5 : guraget revit, 617. 
Gurgi, gvychit a Guindodit lev, 
Guriad, 637. [66'i. 

Gurien, 637, Guryen, 63'5. 
Gvryen gvrhyd enguavc, 66'9. 
gwris, goror, 64'I7. 
Gurrith, 2'3. 

gurtheneu, ep. of Gurtheyrn, 67*5. 
Gurtheyrn gurtheneu, 67'5. 
Cwtic, gueith, 83'il. * 

Gwy47'i5, Guy 5f2, Difrrin47'i. 
Guyn. See Guin. 
gvytbuil, 1 1 '4. 
Guynev godvff hir, march Kei, 

287: (5^.gwineu,83T-6; io6'i6. 
Guynnassed, yn lleutir, 67'3. 
Guyr. See Gvhir. 
Guythuch, 68"2. 
Guythur, 67' 12. 

(Gynan gyhoret, Ryt, 69-i8). ♦ 
Gyrthmul, 67'4. 


Hal art, in, 49'2. 

hael, ep. of Fyrnuael, 66Tr, and 

of Riterch, 285, 52-11, 5616, 

57-16, 64-9. 
haelaf, ep. of Hyuel, 76-7. Cp. 

Hael Hywel o bwrs y ivlad. 
haelon 3-4, 6-9, Deheuparth, 78-8. 
Hawren, Dyffrin, 75-1. 
Heilin, 100-12. 
Helet, Llan, 64-io. 
heli, 54-4. 

hen, ep. of Llywarch,64-i4, 107-8 
HSn egluis, 63-9. 
(henben, ep. of Hennin, 69-17.) 
Henri, breenhin na b., 62-15. 
heul 38-11, 46-IO-I6, 83-13, 88'6. 
higneid, 10-6, 84-3. 
hir, ep. of Eitivlch, 66-12 ; of 

Gwallauc, 63-14 ; of Jeithon, 

103-7 : godvff hir, 28-7. 
Hiraethauc, 83-2. * 

Hirgwevn, 68-17. * 

Hir vynyt, 66-8. 
Hirell, 57-5. cp. Bro Hiryell, 

tnRed Bookof Hergest, 1404-41 
Hirerv minit, 69-9. 
hirvlaut, 79-10. 
hud = Guin mab Nud, 98-8. 
hoev etiftir, tri, 28-11. 
hwetil, 51-9. * 

hyneiw = Beduir a Bridlav, 95-15. 
Hyvlyt, tad Fyrnuael hael, 66-ii. 
Hywel, 76-1, Hyuel, 76-9, guledic 

75-4, haelaf 767. 
Hywel welmor, v. Goronwy, 73-13 

Jal, 74'ii- 

Jaspar Griffith, 5 m, 46 m * 
Idas, 878, Itas, 62-5. Judas. 

Idin, ep. of Clytno, 64-2-5. f/.Eidin 
Jeithion, kad, 61-4. 
Jeithon hir, ar clawr, 103-6. 
Jessu, 25-10, 50-13, 53-13. 
Jev, dyv 46-4, dyw 488. 
ineutur, 22. See Deutur. » 

Inis Pridein, 27-7, 28-1-5-11. Teir 

rac ynis ar teir inis, 75-3. 
Joff, 42-13. Job. 

jo2, irii, 82-11. 
is codic, 81-4. 
iscol, buch, 8r6. 
Iscolan, yscolheic, 81-2-3. 
isel gwelitin, 64-1. 
Itas, 62-5, Idas, 87-8. Judas 

Itewon, 102-2. * 

Iwerit, in Rodwut, 92-14. « See 
Iwerton, 54-4. [Ywerit. 

Llachar mab Run, milur mirein, 

68-6, Uyv niver, 68-10. 
Llachev, 96-9, mab Arthur, 99-16 
Llan Bevno, 638. 

Elvy, 68-4. 

Helet, 64-10. 

Morvael, 64-8. 

Padarn, 63-16. 
llanerch, 49-15. 
Ilavur, ar claur, 103-14. 
llawur,llywiaudir, = Arthur 72-10. 
llaueghin, ep. of Llvch, 66-6. 
llaugyfes, ep. of Llev, 66-14. 
Llaur, 66-1, 75-10, 97-2. 



llaur, new a, 786, 10115 ; o nef 
hid laur, 58-12; y duv llaur, 
41-11, 58-12 ; y laur 99-6. 

llauynnauc, ep. of Lluch, 94-14. 

Llech Vaelvy, kewin, 46-7. 

Lledieith, ep. of Llir, 104-16. 

(Lledin, 69-16). 

Lledneint, y rug Llewin ae, 68-13. 

Uedneis, ep. of Livid, 69-8. 

Llein, 74-8. Ll^n. 

Lleinauc, tad Gwallauc, 97-6, 

Lleynnac, tad Lloegir, 100-4. 

Lleissaun, 79-7. 

Llemenic, 68-4. 

Lleon, kad Caer, 61-3. 

Llethir y Brin, 68-14. 

Llev llaugyfes, 66-14. 

Llev a Gwidion, kaer, 102-2. 

Llev, mab Llywarch h6n, 107-14. 

Llev Powis, 105-5. 

Ueutir Guynnassed, 67-3. cp. lle«- 
tir, 45-6, and note scribal error 
L\enn altered to LleT/, 66-14. * 

Ueuon, 96-13 ; lleon, 77-9. « 

Uevreu 36-4. 

(Llewelin ap Cynfric, 46-19). 

Llewin ae Lledneint, y rug, 68-13. 

Llia gvitel, 65-14. \See Llyr. 

Llir lledieith, tad Bran, 104-16. 

Llis Gvallauc, 97-4. 

Llis, rvif, = Meigen, 64-17. 

Lliv, 67-3, Aber Llyv, 108-15. 

Lliwelit, tad Llvytauc, 66-io. 

Lloegir, 55'i4"i6, 64'i3. io3'". 
Lloegyr, 48-7. 

Lloegir, mab Lleynnac, 100-4. 

Lloegruis, 54-9. 

Uoer, 38-11, 88-7. 

Hog dessefTor, 16-11. 

Uog^orth, i6"i2, 72-2. ♦ 

Uu ouit, 66-2. [28-12. 

Llvagor, march Karadauc B., 

lluoet agor, 77-1. 

Lluc vynit, 108-9. 

Llvch llaueghin, 66-6. 

Lluch llauynnauc, 94-13. 

Lluid, Merchin march, 46-15. 

Livid Uedneis, 69-7. 

Lluiuein, kad Coed, 60-3. 

Llun, 38-8, dyv, 49-14. 

Llundein, 58 in margin, 77-4. 

Lluoscar, 66-17. 

Llut, tad Creurdilad, 98-9, tad 
Tawlogev, 68-19. 

Llvytauc, uab Lliwelit, 66-10. 

Llyant, 46-1. 

Llychur, 67-3. 

Llydau, ep. of Emer, 67*2. 

Llyr,t. Manawidan, 94-10. SeeUir 

Uyth-er, 36-4 ; -ir ig cuir, 38-11. 

Llyv, Aber, 108-15 ; Lliv, 67-3. 

llyv niver, ep. of Llachar, 68-10. 

Llyvnav, Riv, 66-16. 

Llywarch 93-11, hto, 107-8-13, 
Llyuarchh^n,64-i4. Meibon— 
see Arav, Argad, Eithir, Erthir, 
Gwen, Llev, Mechit, Pill, San- 
dew, Seliw, (Sr* Vrien. 

Llyuelin, 52-13, 55-16. 

llywiawdir llawur = Arthur, 72-10. 

(Llywy, 69-16). 


Mab. See ab, am. 

mab Guendit 5o'i4, Ossvran 64'5. 

maban, 48'i2, 5112, 6i'5 ; vebin, 

Mabon am Melld, 94'i2. [131 1» 

Mabon am Mydron, 94"6. 

Machavvy, kad, 6ri, gueith -vi 
59'io, diffrin -uy 48'6, gueryd 
-ave 66' 18, byi. 

Machrev, 48"6. 

Madauc, marchauc, 69-4 ; teulu, 
io3'48'ii. cp. infra. |"65'4'5. 

Madauc, mab y Guyn o Win llyuc, 

Madauc, mab Maredut, 103-05. 

Madauc, vir Vrien, 6y6. 

Maelenit, 752, io3'3. 

Maelgun, r'8, 46'i6, 998 ; llu, 4^4. 

Maelur, ebediv am, 69' 12. 

Maelvy. See Llech Vaelvy. 

Maen. See Rid Vaen ked. 

Maes Guitnev, 1067. 

Maes mawr, 69'20. 

Maes meuetauc, byi^. » 

maluinauc, ep. of Meilir, b^'<). 

Manauid, 94'ii. 

Manawidan ab Llyr, 94"io. 

mangaled, Meiri, 54'i4. 

Mantvy, 99-2. See kaer Wantvy. 

maon, minit, 6o'20. 

March, 67'I2. 

march inis P., tri anreith, 277-10. 

march, 8n, ioi7'i3. 5^^Arwul, 
Bucheslum, Caringrun, Carn- 
awlauc, Keincaled, Drudluid, 
Du hir terwenhit, Guynev, 
Llvagor, Melynlas, Merchin, 
Ruthir ehon, Tauautir. 


Maredut, tad Madauc, io3'i. 

mari, 45M0. 

mascul a bun, 38'8, a vascul a 
femen, 36'2. mascul-us. 

Mathauarn, yg gurthtir, 68' 16. 

Maur, ep. of Gereint, 72'5. 

mawr, Maes, 69'2i. 


maurhidic,42"9, 657, io7'4, maur- 
idic, 63' 1 2. See Mor. 

Maurth, 387, div, 57'3, ditguith- 
lonet, 57-3. 

Mechit, 93"3, mab Llywarch 'l i ; 
fonogion Mugc a lataut Mechit 
937 ; ban kirchuid Mug maur 
treuit nyd oed uagaud meirch 
Mechit, 93'i-2, io8'5-6.(r/.67-i9. 

Mei, meirch, 67"20. See meirch. 

meibon. See Eidauc, Eliffer, Lly- 
warch hSn, Meigen. 

Meigen, mab Run 6i\'\y\y, ab 
Run by2; meibon 67'i9; tad 
Alun Dywed 65'i3. 

Meilir, 65'4, maluinauc, mab y 
Bruin o Bricheinauc, 65'8"lo. 

Meir, 45'io, 87"6, gwiri7r6, mam 
duu 88" 1 3, modridaw teernet, 
mam Crist, 29-4-5 : [133-24]. 

meirch Mechit, 93^2, io8'6 ; Mei 

meiri mangaled, 54'i3. L^7'i9. 

Meironit, 747. 

Melynlas, m'ch Kaswallaun,28"l2 

Melld, tad Mabon, 94' 12. 

menestir. See finaun w. 

menic, goruir, 77'6. cp. ioi'4. 

Menvy, kyven, 75'2, 

Merchin, march Lluid, 46-1 5. 
Merchir, dyv, 46-3, io2'i2 ; mer- 

chyrdit, 487. 
mererid, io6'ii-i6, io7'i. 
merwerit, 22'l. * 

Mervin, 46"i2. 

meuetauc, Maes, 67"i4. * 

Meuric ar kewin y gureic, 97m. 
Meuric, mab Karreian c.e., ioo'2. 
Mihagel, 32'I2. 
jnilur mirein = Llachar, 68"5. 
mineich yn varchogion, 47'io, 

myneich 56'i3. 
minit Eidin, 957 ; Eilivert 27'i # ; 

maon 6o'2o ; Hir vinit, 66"8 ; 

Hirerv m. 699. cp. wibir winit. 

(Merddin, m. Morfryn,46'i7'2o) 
Mochno. See Cors M. 
Mochnvy, rid, 47'3. 
Moesen, 36' i. 
M6n,6o"6 ; o amtiret, 6o"9 ; arben- 

ygaul, 47' 1 6 ; Ed win imon, 47*4 ; 

kadimM., 6r2; aethV., 96-12. 
Mor, 65*4; maurhidic, diessic un- 

ben, mab Peredur, 657 ; Mor 

mauridic, 63"i2, io7'4. 
Morccanhvc 77'8. See Morgant. 
Mordei, kinytion, 53"2. 
(Morfryn, tad Merddin), 46'i7'2i. 
Morgant, o hil, 77'8. 
Morgant, gulad, 74*4 = Morccan- 
hvc, 77'8. Glamorgan. 
Morial, 63"5. 
Morien, 63'5. 
morua, 69' 14, ioo'i4, -va loo'g. 

Morvael, Llan, 64"8. 

morynion moelon, 617. 

Mug, maur treuit, 93'i, 108*5, 
Mugc, 93'6. Note that maur 
treuit do not mean mawr dre- 
/ydd as usually transliterated 
te/mawrdrewydd. 7%^ffonog- 
ion o/Mugc, Hhe mighty smiter^ 
beat Mechydd to death. See 
93"67, * &" cp. Mechit. 

mur, ior irii, egluc 65"5, eglur 
103-15, eluit -3, galon -8, Pry- 
dein '12, gwerennic 77"6. 

Mydno, tad Vgnach, io2'8. 

Mydron, tad Mabon, 94"6. 

mynogi, i2-9. 

mynwent Corbre, 63' 10. 

mynver, 88'6. 

Mynvy, dyffrin, 74-4 ; tir, 59' 14. 

Myrtin, fl, 2'l,6-2'8'l i, Mir-, 37, 
5. See Kaer Wyrtin, 57'io. 

NantConvy, 74"i2. 5^^ Pennant, 
nav kanmaul, 43'9; navgradnew, 

42'5 ; nav guiton 96'! 2; nav 

toryw new, 88'3. 
Ner, tad Eliffner, 68-8. 
new a Uaur, 78'6, ion 5. cp. li'l2. 
new ac eluit, 88"i3. See direid, 

nav, Pedyr, Periw, Reen. 
Nevuy, plant, 757. 
nognav, I2'5. 
Nortmandi, 54'2'I0. 
Nortmin, 58 in margin. 
Nu/, tad Gain, 98"8, 99"4. 
Nynhav, 46-14. 


Oeth ac Anoeth, teulu, 66'4. 

offereid, 84'2. 

Ogyrven, 97, 14-9, 15-2. 

Oliver vz"«it, 27" i. « 

Omni, 66" 1 7. 

on, 37-8. 

onn verev, 48" 10. 

orian, I3'5. « 

Ossvran, mab, 64"5. 

Owein, 6o'4, 64T1, bet in Llan 

helet, 64' 10. 
Owein,niabVrien, 27"8; abUrien 

647 ; bet in Llan Morvael. 
Owein 92*9, Reged, 92' 13. 

Padarn, Llan, 63" 16. 

pader, 2r8'9'i2, 84"4. 

palach, pen, 95 "6. 

Paluc, cath, 96' 14" 1 5. 

pant Gwinn Gvinionauc, 65'3. 

paraduis 407. 

Passe, 88-14. 

Passcen, fiU'us Vrien, 28'2. 

pater et fili et spiritu, 377-8. 

Paul ac Annhun, 38"4. 

paul cored, 81 'ii. 

pebir gur, 98'6. cp. infra. 

pebrur, ior3. 

Pedir,[irii], penpobieith 83'i2, 
■yr 7ri, porthaur new, 7r3. 

pedridauc, 73" 15, pedror, 11 "12. 

pedrival, 69'3 ; pedryal, 64"8 » = 
peddrael,26'i i ;pedrydant,76'l I 
95'9 ; pedryfanhauc, 553. 

pelis, 92'2'6io. * 

pegor, 18-5. 

penbaladir, Kymri, 58'I2. 

pendewic Dyued, 59' IS- 

(pendeuic Eryri), 48' 18. 

pendragon, ep. of Uthir, 947. 

Penguern, 48' 15. 

Penminit, 52TO. 

Pennant Turch, 66'I3. 

pen palach, 95'6. 

Penrin, 74-5. 

penwetic, ep. of Peredur, 65"8. 

Peredur penwetic, tad Mor, 65"8. 

perthic, 53" 17. » 

Peryton, 63'15. fhael 26-9. 

periw new, 44'i, 78'6, 93-8 ; peryw 

pilgeint, 2 1 '8, 707. 

Pill, mab Llywarch hen, io8'4. 

Pimlumon, 477. 

pimp kaer, 39'2. 

pimp dirnaud, 40"io. 

pimp penaeth, 54'2. 

Powis,74-i3 ; glyu, 57"4 ;llev, 105-5 

Pridein, 58 m, 60-7, 92-7 ; inis,27 7, 
28-1-6-11 : unpen o P., 67-2; 
teernweilch P., 79-3 ; milvir P., 
100-5 ! milguir Bridein, 100-7. 
(Prydein, 69-20), 73-10 ; o tirion 
P., 60-6 ; traufev P., 52-12 ; mur 
Prydein, 103-12. 

Prydin, kad im, 49-3. 

pridit 87-12, 103-2. See\fix\.. 

pridit maur, ep. of Kyntelv, 103-2. 

prise, 57-15. * 

priw uchei«, Bro, 92-8. * 

pryued, mor, 81-19. 

Pryderi, 63-13. 

Pyd, tad Run, 64-2. 



Rallt, iny, 69-I2. See Alld. 
Reged, ep. of Owein, 92'i3. 
reen, 137 ; ren new, 29-12, 32-33, 

83'2'io, 88'i5 ; Devs ren, g'l » 

Ren 88' 1 1, 93' 10. 
Reon, Kaer, 6o'20. See Rid Reon. 
Ri-. See Ry- 

rianet, ergynan, 29"6. » 

Rid Reon, 52'4, 64'3. 
Rid Vaen ked, 65-II. 
Rid Vochnvy, 47"3. 
Ryd Britu, 66-17. • 

(Ryt Gynan gyhoret, 69'i8). * 
Ridev, in y, 68'll. 
Rieinvc, 77'8. 
Rigenev, tad ruyw, 68" 12. 
Riogan, a want Run, 69"i. 
rrin, 46-3 ; rinn, 94-9. 
Ris, o hil, 57'ii ; Rys, 2'9. 
Ritech, Riterch. See Ryderch h. 
Riv Didmuy, 59' 11. 
Riv Lyvnav, 66'i6. 
rodwit, 92'5, -wut Iwerit, 92*i4. * 
Romani, 6ri4. 

Ros, 74'9. Rowynniauc, 74'9. 
Run, tra, 49'8. » 

Run, (69'i5), kywranc R. ar Drvd 

arall, 93-5, io8'8. 
Run, Ri oet ew, 68'20, 69T. * 
Run, mab Alun Diwed, 65' 12. 
Run, mab Pyd, 64*2. 
Run, tad Llachar, 68'6. 
Run, tad Meigen, 64'i6'i7, 65'2. 
rut, ep. ofBeidauc, 66'i6'i9, 67T. 
Ruthir ehon tuthbleit, march 

Gilberd, 28-8. 

RuT/aun, ruyv enit ran, 67'9 ; R. 
ryievanc daerin, 67"! I. 

Ruvein, 82T5. 

ruyw, mab Rigenev, 68'ii. 

Ry— . See Ri— . 

Ryddnant, glan, 68'20. 

Rymi, 62'i2. » 

Rys, 2-9, Ris, 57-1 1. 

Ryterch hael,28'5,Ryderch49"l6, 
h. 56'i6, Riderch h. 57'i6, 64'9, 
Ritech h. S2'i i. ? Rydirch, 503. 

Saeson 6o'6, pen Saeson 667, 
Saesson, 48'io, 5i'i3, 52'S, 
57-12, 58-5, 6o-i4-i6, 1037. 

(Sais, I25'29). 

Sallauc, Kaer, 55'5. 

(Sanauc, 69'i4.) 

Sandew, mab Ll'ch hSn, io8'4. 

Sanffreid, 83- 12. 

Sarffren, iny, 58'5. » 

seint 34-4, 7rii, 85-5, io6'4. 

seith seint, etc., 34'4. 

seith guaew...kad...tan, etc., 6. 

seith meib Eliffer, 5 "8-9. 

Seithennin sinhuir vann 63' 11, 
-hin, io6'6, synuir v., io7'3. 

Seliw, mab Llywarch hen, io8'4. 

Selyw mab Kynan garrvin, 28*4. 

Seon, caer, io2'2. 

Seri. See Bucheslum S., 27" 10. 

Siaun, 69'9. 

Silit, 68-3. 

suinau, 23-24. f^S'ii) I07"3- 

synhuir vann, ep. of Seithennin, 

suyt Erbin, 667. 


' tad awen,' ep. of Tedei, 637. » 
Taguistil. . o tir Guinet, 55'9. 
Tal art, 49'2. 

tal yscvn, ep. of Eidal, 67' 1 8. 
Talan, io8-i6, talyrth, 68-6. 
Taliessin,2'8, 5'8,6'5,7'i, io2'9'io, 

Talyes', 17, Taliess' 4-4. 
Taradir, Aber, 52' 12. 
tarv torment, 63'io. 
tarv trin, 69'9T3, 97T3, io8'l. 
Taw, pont ar, 47"i4, 63'i. Tdv. 
Tauautir breichir, march Kad- 

wallaun, 27*1 1. 
Tawlogev, mab Llut, 68' 18. 
Tavue68'ii ; Tawuenessaf98T4, 

Tedei, ' tad awen,' 637. » 

Teernon, 77'9. 
Tegigil, 74-10. 
Teir cad, 687 ; t. finhaun, 35*5 : 

t. rac ynis ar teir inis, 75'3. 
teithiauc, ep. of Goholeth, ioo'4. 
Teiwiaffon, 5I-I7; olanT., 6o'ii. 
terwenhit, 28-3. See Du hir t. 
teulu Arthur, io3"i6 ; teulu bann 

Benlli gaur, I03'5 ; t. Madauc 

I03-4-8-II ; t. Oeth ac Anoeth 

66'4 ; tri diweir deulv, 104" i. 
Teyrnuron, 30' i. 
tir, 34-3, 62-5, 63-14, 85-1, 89-3, 

92'2 ; tir Brycheinauc 74'! ; tir 

Diwneint, 72'ii ; elvittir, 69'5 ; 

eredictir,44'6; tirethlin, 55"i4; 

tir Guinet, SS'IO; tir Mynvy, 

59"i4 ; tir terwin y eilon, 61 '4 ; 

tirion {pl.\ 26'4, 6o'6, ? 54'4. 


ton navfed, 53';. 

Trewruit, 68'i9. See Tryuruyd. 

Tri aghimen kad, 107T3. 

Tri anreith march Inis P., 277. 

Tri bodauc, 65"3. 

Tri hoev etystir Inis P., 28-11. 

Tri gohoev etystir I. P., 28'6. 

Tri thorn etystir I. P., 28-1. 

Tri Uv rac drech, 25'9. 

Tri meib Llywarch h^n, 107T3. 

Tri seith pader, 21' 12. 

trin 65'i8, 66"8 ; kiraerev, 57"i2 ; 

tarv, 69-9-I3, 97-13, io8-l. 
trined in celi a thri vned, 36-11. 
truinrut, ep. of Dormach, 99-9. 
trydit Ryuet 888 ; tri diweir 

teulv, 104-1 ; tryde Uv 25-12. 
Tryuan i ^^ ; alld Try van 64-7. 
Tryuruyd 1-7, Trywruid 94'ii, 

traetheu 95-10. Cp. Trewruz'd, 
Turch, Pennant, 66-13. \i>Z-i<). 
tuthbleit, Ruthir ehon, 28-8, S ri 7. 
TytuI, Brin, 92-4. 
Tywi, 63-1 ; dvylan, 6ri6 ; erir, 
Tywin, 74-5- IS'-i? 

uchel tytin, 64-1. 

Vgnach, 102-8-12 ;mab Mydno,-7. 

Vnic bariffvin, 53-5. 

Vrien, 76-12: m. Ll'rchhen 107-15 

Vrien, tad Owein, 27-9 ; tad Pass- 
can 28-3 ; Urien, tad O., 64-7 ; 
tadcu Madauc, 65-6. 

vrten, 9-6, 15-1, 77-12 ; urtin,64-i. 

Uthir pendragon, 94-7. \ordin-em. 

vtvt, 49-50, 76-3. * 

Vaelvy, llech, 467. 
Vaenked, Rid, 65-11. 
Vagv, claur, 103" 17. 
vann caer,yar, I o6' 1 1 ,van k. io6' : 
Wantvy, kaer, 99'2. 
veibonin, brad gulad, 6o'5. 
Welmor, ep. of Hywel, 73'I3- 
wenestir, finaun, io6'8-ii. 
Vochnvy, rid, 47'3. 
Uriauael, Kelli, 67'4. 
Vrython, 61-5. See Brython. 
Vynyt, Hir-, 66-8. 
Wyrtin, Kaer, 57-9. 

Warvy 74-5, Guarvy 50-6, Warruy 
welugan. 2*4. [59"'0- 

wen,nichan, 3rio. QJ.guengert. 
wibir winit, 99"io. 
wid, 437. » 

(Wiliam Sion, 125-33). 

tvineu. See Guineu, Guyneu. 

uir Aedan, 15-9. 

vir Vrien, Madauc, 65-6. 

uiron Yswein, 58 m. [98' I4- 

vrth-av, 16-3 ; -i, 44-13 ; "'d 68-3, 

Wtic, gueith, 83- 11. See Gwtic. » 

wyant, 46-2. 

vythneint, 94-5. 

Ynys, teir rac, 75-3. See Inis. 
Yscolan 81 -2, Iscolan, 81-3. 
ystarn de winev, 83-1 •3-6. Cp. 

Guynev, march Kei. 
Yftawin, 96-11. * 

Ysradvi, 74-5. Ystradwy. 

Ystyuacheu, 67-4. 
Yswein, uiron, 58 (margin), 
yton, Kad ar, 6i-i. 
Ywerit clod lydan, tad Bran,99-i4. 
Cp. in rodwut iwerit, 92-14. 



Some of the less familiar forms of Verbs*. 

2 sg. PRt:s. Ind., in old poetry, often ends in -it, i.e. -yb=-y vel -;. 
Anigiffredit937,99'lo;clivit20"5;kyuerchyt79l6;digonit 197; doit 
98'2, lo2'i ; erchit 97'l6 ; gogyuerchit 98'i ; guneit 235 ; imwaredit 
19-6 ; medrit 925 ; rotit gS'l ; sillit 99^9. Kedwi 43'i2, erti 55'i,&c. 

3 sg. Pres. Indicative of a8aw = eteu 102-5 ; of taraw=tereu 
63'I3 ; of cadw = rycheidvv I4'6; of llanw = Ileinw loi'i ; of berwi = 
beirvv lori ; oferchi = eirch 3rii [also cyv-wch 3r9, 50-4, go- 96' 14, 
en-eirch 5o'2, kywr- i6-6) ; parch-av = peirch 50-5 ; of trenghi 70"I2 = 
treinc 70^9 ; of diang-av = ry dieinc 918 ; of coSi 436 = caw8 146 ; 
of digoni=dichaun 717; of no8i = naw8 811, 7o'ii ; of cronni = 
crawn 3 r3; arvoll-av = erviIl ig'i, ior6,' gwel-av, 2. -i45'4, gwyl478. 
3 sg. Preterites in -aud. Diwaud 42-13, 447, diwod 45-2, divaud 
69-6, rym divod 61-13 ; guaraud 39-8. 

3 sg. Preterites in -as, -es, -is, -wys, -ws. Bradas 81-9 ; cauas 66-3, 
dylivas 87-8; guelas iori6, rythwelas 101-12 ; ry dadlas 74-2: 
tuyllas 81-9: digon« 100-14; rotes 42-16, 6615; ry toes 106-7: 
cedwzV 43-12, ry chedwis 14-7 ; ry chynis 14-8 ; treghis 21-13, 7°'^ ! 
h&TdiUys 43-13 ; bendiguis 35-9 ; bilwis43-i ; brissuis 101-3 > crevis 
86-10; kynnuis 40-8 ; guiscvis43'l6; ry wiscuis 75"io; minnvis 44-4; 
pechuis 41-14 ; tinnuis 97-5-11 ; bendigaj- 36-1 ; ffruinclymuus 93-13. 
3 sg. Perfects Passive in -ad, -ed. Caffad95-2; caffod 16-2; diallad 
63-3 ; rim artuad 23-1 ; ry parad 85-10 ; suinad 23-10 ; arched 73-10 ; 
colled 95-2; digoned 36-8; ganed 65-14, 73-9, ri aned S3-15 ; 
proued 40-1 ; roted 2312 ; ry doded 81-1017. 

Prof. Strachan writes in the Revue Celtique, lOfyj: "It is well-known that 
the Subj. of the Irish verb has formally only two tenses, a present and a past. 
I have discovered . . . clear indications that in British, as in Irish, there were 
at one time only two tenses ... In the same passage an earlier text shews the 
past Subj. when a later exhibits the plpf. Thus R.B. Mab. yr nas gwelsei = 
W. B. kyn nys rywelhei 454 '22 &c. . . . Later plpf. Subj. forms = plpf. Ind., 
and have come from them. . . . The spread of the plpf. Ind. to the Subj. goes 
along with the disappearance of A forms in the Subj., whereby the past Subj. 
came to coincide in form with impf. Ind., except in a few words . . . and 
even there is a tendency to substitute byZitm for bewn. 

As Thurneysen has pointed out K7.., XXXI, 10, the plpf. Ind. is in itself a 
British innovation, modelled on the impf. In Early Welsh the impf. is still 
found in a plpf. sense in the apodosis of conditional sentences, e.g. diri a 
collei bei fias prinAei=ma.n would have been lost if He had not redeemed him 
. . bei yscuypun . . nys gunawn — \{ I had known &c." B.B.C., 4i'i & 8i'i2. 

In his paper on the SuBJ. MooD in Irish Prof Strachan has shown that ro- 
is found W'ith the past, only in exceptional circumstances. "In Welsh ry is 
absent in the instances quoted from the B.B.C. and in a couple of others, but 
more generally it is present. Here obviously we are confronted with a Welsh 
innovation to get a more distinct form to express the plpf. sense. A similar 
use of ry is found with the Pres. Subj. when it has the force of a perfect, 
cf. Eriu II, 2t8. This use, however, is not without its exception." See 
a digon/iom = Vihsit we have done 30-3. * Continued from page 112 q,v, 

B.B.C. 157 


KB X) €[© :^ E.X[ 0)1^:^3^ 3 ^TY 

This German fount, in various sizes, and the letters specially cut 
represent the Large Initials referred to on page xxxvii above. All 
are red, except those particularised below. Black: A 46'i. 
Gr^^«;A48-4,49-8, 50-15, 51-14, 52-1 ; 641-5,87-3; D 73-1 1 ; £47-7, 

G85-7; H61-10, 62-1-6,70-13; K 104-3; N 742; S 1066; V76-10. 
Chrome: E 23-4 ; G 10-12, 86-6 ; K iS'i ; M 84-2 ; N 24-9. 

The above fount, in smaller capitals, represents red letters in 
the MS., except those enumerated below which are black. 

A 78-3-5-8-10-13, 82-3, 85-1; B 91-9; 046-9-11-13; E 63-4-5-13, 

65-1, 66-2-8, 90-4; G 107-11; H 83-13, 90-14, 107-15 ; M 46-14 ; 

O 90-1 ; S 91-1 ; T 3-5-7, 19-10, 27-11, 65-2, 83-16, 89-3, 107-13, 108-1. 

Certain of the large capitals are floriated, — in Black, B 87-3, 
88-3 ; K 18-1 ; \n Red, A 4,%-^ ; B41-5 ; K 104-3 '< coloured in Chrome: 
the human head on page 25, & the hound Dormarch on page 97 ; 
also corners of the square enclosing D, g-i, with black in the centre. 
For further details see Facsimile, and its prefatory note. 

The Tables of the Verbs have crowded out the analysis of the 
orthography. The Notes were printed over a year ago, otherwise 
the Verbs would have fared similarly. As there is no real end to 
any work, only a leaving off, I stop with the few corrections and 
additions which follow. First comes xx-17 of the preface. 
Nis credav goel can nid kerth. Why do we say " God bless you " 
to the man who sneezes ? We do not know, but the persistence of 
the ritual shows the importance of the dogma in our ancestral 
religion. We are all suckled in creeds outworn : when we are 
grown up we repeat our catechisms, ancient and modern, with equal 
fervour and equal ignorance of the meaning. Our minds are 
swayed by nursery tales, and we ever find it necessary to dash past 
dark places to escape bogies of the mind. Our bard, to keep up his 
spirits, sings aloud : ' In the hands of my Lord I will dress to-day : a 
sneeze I hear, — it will not hurt me, I will not believe it. I will 
dress me seemly well : / will not believe an omen, because it is not 
certain; He who created me will sustain me.' 82-3-7. Later he tries 
to rationalize on the subject, for he reflects that where there is a 
nose there will be sneezing, 83-5. But it is safe to assume that 
sneezing perturbed his soul to the end. 

46- 1 7 The statement that Merhin is the author of the matter on 47-62 
is too absurd to discuss. Note the dates of the events, p. xxiii, etc. 

May-day, igoj. J.G.E. 



•Scribal Errors. 
76 ge\ho/or gwelho. ir2 KaoA /or Eitol. cp. 67'i7, & Bruis 140. 
i2'5 «ev /£)r ?aev = wyv. iz'iimer /or ?me/. r38'4. 

169 a hun /or ? A«hun i.e. Anton-y, the father of monachism. cp. 
23-3 nin cred «z. 3ig-io uore .... wenlgert ^i' 12]. Omit. 
29'3 weUi /or wellig, 3sg. Pres. Ind. of gwelligaw //■wa2 gwall— . 
43'i4 guyth /or gwyrth, see 44-2. Llywarch Reynolds. 
49'9) 891 1, 9ri4 ^scud, yscuid /or the old monosyllabic scutti. 
64'! urtin /or u/rtin. 92-8 yar can /or ? ya.r varc/i ca.n. 
briyvhun. Omit. 70-5 imyo^l yor \xnyo\ed. 
84*2 bid., m. for ecclvis, f. Note /^esgip ae /iigneid, and metre. 
84"i3 Ryhun a ryuetudaud i.e. Ryhun ryveSw-dawd. 
878 dyl/Vas. Metre requires a dissyllable. J ?dvyl/as. 
94'S mi ae guaredz for ys mi ae guared = ae guared ys mi. Cp. 

Arnun nin cred ni nep = Arnun nep nin cred, 23'3. 
105—106. kedywd!?|mteith /or kedymteith. 

6'3 vuelin = uvelin. 8'i odiu = godiv. 9-12 Cathyr = Jlr. cinteir. 
Z'\pedi = prayer, from Lat. Pet-o. \y\ mywir from me7nor-[a. 
9'i ren = reen., ruling power, from an oblique case oiregen-s. 
lO'4 kywyrgirn kyvle = kyvr-gyrn kyv-lei". 
47'6, 58'6 dillad = coat of mail. 5314 nymiad = ny mad. 
66'5 yinoeth = ? yn oeth = ? yn oeh . . . guas. But cp. R.B. 7*30 ; 

Eirymynyd acdo oeth ; Bit glaf pob trOm IlOm Uet noeth. 
86'3 d\-iawi. Cp. gwa-Su/ = dot, dowry. Eng. do/e, O.E. ddi, geddl. 
loo'i6 golchiw. Verbal noun. |cp. molim. 

Additional Notes. 
22*1, 87'! 5 dinwrtj'hite . . . dinw(^j.fune. Scr. errors for diwnute 
. . . diwnune i.e. imperfects, and dissyllables. The plpf. is an 
innovation in Welsh. See note on p. 157. 
22'i2 pir wu-u/ This rhymes with dikivol«. The/is mute. Cp. 

the rhyme-words of kyvle = kyv-le/'lo"4 ; Ili = lli/"62'I5, &c. 
25'9drech = ?/(?;«. <ydrych. drech drem = ? mirror-look. Cp. 
He took such cognisance of men and things, 

If any beat a horse you felt he saw 

Yet stared at nobody, — you stared at him, 
And found, less to your pleasure than surprise. 
He seemed to know you and expect as much. R. Browning. 
33'i Ki«/evin = 'before May9.' /"//io/i^. See xxx"7-i8. -w/- is usually 
reduced to nh. Cp. An«//un 38'i4 ; ca«//yn 166 ; kiw^uan 6'5 ; 
keiweidyfcr kei«/;eid, from keiw/eid 99, i5'4; torme«/ioe8 io3'9. 
389 awotun = abyss, from an + go+dwvyn. The intensive particle 
an must not be confounded with the negative an., in words like 
awchvant 734, (2«hetauc 127, ^«weir 87'6, enrydet 547, fwryuet 
557, where the a is affected by the following palatal vowels. 



6i"5 eilon = aliens, = strangers. Lat. al-i-us. cp. Taliessin 43-8 : 
Noc eillon deu traeth GOell kaeth Dyfet. 
Deu traeth = app. the strands of Fishguard and Newport. Both strands 
belong to the old lordship Marcher, or barony of Kemes, which "was 
originally independent of the Palatinate of Pembroke" in Dyved. The 
Norman leader "Martin de Tours or de Turribus," brought the eillon 
into deu traeth, and established them there. Note that Newport is 
Trevdraeth, vel 'Trewdrath' in Welsh. 

62' 1 4 a llyr en Hi. cp. Tal. AtOyn eryr ar Ian llyr pan llanhOy 9-4 ; 
dylleinO dy llyr 6626 ; Myv. : Val twryf ebyr yn llyr Uawn i s6^g. 
Cp. mf:r7very8, 88'8 below. 

67'i3 anoeth bid. Cp. anoeth byd braOt bOyn kynnuU J?.B. I3'i820. 

67'i5 Cylchuy drei. Cp. /i«. calcdrei. I Myv. ysgwydamdre\ i6o^'52. 

73-13 Hywel ■welmoT. Cp. Khy-vel, & CaXmor. Howel vab GronO 
... a gynhuIlo8 anreitheu drwy losci tei a diffeithaw haiach yr 
holl wladoeh." Bruts i-j()-]. 

8r6 See note p. 133, and footnote 28 of page xviii. 

82'i-7 See xx'i7, and postscript, page 158. 

82"4 Nid ew wylduu = ? iJyduu = pyd/w, or pydwj/, i.e. ' a sneeze can 
do no harm — I won't believe it.' See Postscript. 

82 '4 coel = Ir. eel, gl: auspicium. Kerth = f(?r/-wj. 

83' I Redec/i. cp. Laws MS.E, fol. i : 'a rei onadunt a adassant 
y redech, ac ereill yn gvbyl a dalyassant, ac ereyll o newyd a 
OSSodassant.' Saddle thy bay, with bridle white, coursing 
Hiraethog with quivering mane. 

88'8 merwerit mor, the tossing or tumult of the sea, [? flood-tide], 
wave, agitation, frivolity, pleasure = 22'l. cp. \x. mor-fairrge; 
also. Bran mab y merit (fem.), 99'i4, with Bran vab llyr. See 
M. Loth's article in Revue Celtigue, 1907, and 6214 above. 

96'9 d\heit = ux\-reachab\e^ i.e. unattainable. 

96' II Ys/awingun. The Ysgavynwyn of Aneirin, 20'6, naturally 
suggests Yscawingum = Ysgavnwyn. See Note p. 137. 

98'i3 urth i fruin yd wet. The line is app. a syllable short. Read: 
? wrth i ffrwy« «yd hw-eS, (See x-3l). For the assimilation of 
of consonants cp. cawyd k. = caw «yd kerth 82'6 ; aHd = ar rid 
92 '5 ; wi wiv = viyv 7/yw 1006. 

98'i5(?rirmorterruin. See page xi, footnote 4 ; & cp. Pal. Note 5fi7. 

10I-6-8 FechidXooks like a verb— 3 sg. Pres. Ind. Sense suggests 
^nu nyth ervill,' but that does not explain the bungled 'im djoA.' 
The third line contrasts favourably the reception given to the 
subject of the poem by the bard with that by Tristan. 

I02'2 Ban deuaw o caery^o« o imlat ac itewon. See xvi-xviii, & cp. 
Ef kyrch kerdoryon fe fyberO Seon. Tal. 42 'S. 

lo6'9 vachteith = morwyn. Br. Matez 'servant'; corn, maghieth, 
O. Ir. -macdacht, 'adult' . . Gothic mag-ath-s, O.E. maid 
al. ;«a5'rf, ' servant.' ci. m'ddchen. V, HENRY. 

160 B.B.C. 

Corrections &• Additions 

ix'8-9 " The subject is the Battle of ArvderyS, in 'which Maclgwn 
and his men took a decisive part." When I wrote that 
sentence I was mentally fast asleep.* As Maelgwn is said to 
have died in 547, he could not have been at ArvderyS in 573. 
Though I had learnt this from the Annates Camb?iae, and 
noticed the change of metre at 47, yet, in common with others, 
I failed to perceive that two different dialogues had been com- 
pressed into one, till Mr. Egerton Phillimore called my attention 
to the fact. The scribe, we may suppose, turned over two or 
more leaves of his original together, thus omitting the end ol 
the first, and the beginning of the second dialogue. The 
speakers being the same in both dialogues the change of subject 
escaped the scribe's notice, and long has his mistake lived 
undetected. The first half only, therefore, concerns Maelgwn, 
with whose court Taliessin is associated. Myrhin, called the 
King of Dyved in the Vita Merlini, figures as the bard of the 
men of the South. These two bards are the representatives of 
the rival combatants. Mr. Phillimore identifies Traeth Tryvrwyd, 
1-6, the Tribruit of Nennius, with the Solway Firth, which 
appears as Tracht Romra in the Irish Life of Adamnan. 
That Maelgwn made a descent on Dyved is clear. Witness the 
death of Dywel ab Erbin, 4'2, and his grave in the Plain of Caeo, 
65T6. The name of Elgant figures as one of the four princes of 
the adjoining parish of LI. Sawyl, and is commemorated in 
Trallwng Elgan, in the upper hamlet of Talley parish. Erbin and 
Elgan figure in the line of the sixth century Kings of Dyved, J where 
Kyndur appears among their ancestors. Kedvyw, or its cognate 
Cetiu {B. of LI. Ddv, 149) occurs in Blaen Cediw in LI. Gan ; and 
Llether Cadvan, in LI. Gathen, commemorates his companion. 
These and other interesting identifications Mr. Phillimore proposes 
to print soon. 

xxiii-xxviii. These pages were written with the help of the Ttruts, 
and Lewis's Topographical Dictionary. The dates given are 
those of the Bruts, which are generally a year or two out. The 
local history of Lewis needs revision, but as Histories of 
England, including the latest, are silent on the events treated in 
our text, I found it impossible to verify anything. Students will 
therefore accept nothing on trust. 

xxiv9-i5 Omit: "It only mentions Bachwy is too late" — 

" Robert of Belesme" — "or Bachwy." The rivulet Bachwy is a 

*See Report on Welsh MSS., vol. i., p. 120; and Skene's Four Ancient 
Books of Wales, vol. i.. pp. 66-67. 

t Report on Welsh MSS., vol. i., p. 714. J Cardiff MS. 25, p. 77. 

B.B.C. 161 

tributary of the Severn, which it joins above Llan Idloes, as stated 

by Lewis, who nevertheless makes the mistake of writing 

" Machawy or Bachwy " elsewhere. 
xxiv. Note 41. Gint. Mr. Arthur Jones, of the Manchester 

University, has called my attention to Mr. Alex. Bugge's 

Norseme?i in Ireland, where it is shewn that the foreigners who 

held the Irish coast were not Danes, but Norwegians. Mr. 

Jones also points out that in the Britts Norsemen were confounded 

with Germans (267'20-2i, 273'io-ii). Llvvch Garmon = Wexford. 
xxvii"i7 omit " and again at Winchester in 1 172." Prof T. F. Tout. 
.\xviii'27 For Senghenyh read Seinhenyb = Sueineshe = Swansea 

Castle. Lt. Col. Morgan, 
xxiii. Jiead : Oh the little more, and how much it is; 

And the little less, and what worlds away. Robert Browning. 
I mis-quoted from memory, having read the lines between 
Sidney and Melbourne in 1881, and never seen them again. 
Cancel Pal. Notes 125, 2212, 293, 945, 95-4, iof6^ 
Cancel last paragraph of Pal. Notes ir4, 307, 7fioi', 82'9, 83Tb, 

84'8, 92'8 ; also first sentence of footnote 17, p. xiv. 
For 'amhad,' rc«rt"amhad' 97, & for 'na?^/' read' naut' P.N. I4"6. 

637 Tedei. cp. 'cithara notissima Tithen' of Vita Merlini. E.P. 

For folio xv/i (p. 35) read xvni ; and for /.F//*(p. 105) read/,//*. 

For the compositor's 'agressively ' read 'aggressively' xx"29 ; 
for 'everthing' rt'rtrf' everything' xxviT5 ; for '0 bawSyn ' in some 
copies read 'a bawSyn' xxxvi7 ; for 'firmament,' read ' ftrmamtnl' 
I20"i ; for 'di/??culty,' read' di^culty' I40"22 ; transpose ae to ea 
in 'raed' = read, 137, last line: cancel repetition of in ix7, and 
of a xxiii'i3. 


Kewin ir aelwyd 47'9. ISewon/^r KerSorion, xvii. 

Kyminaud, kad, 6r3. llu du 86-5. 

Drum 98-I3 ; xi n. 4l>. mein wineu 2'4. 

Elei, 94-6. Myrtin, ?64-i. ["• 4^- 

[Er]ethlin, tir, 55-14. E.P. Mor Terrwyn 98-15, 106-9. x'l 

Gwythneint 94-5. cp. Gwytheint Moro OrwySawg xiii, n. 12. 

huimleian 519, 55-7-13. preitev gorthowis 96-4. 

• Omit Fechid and urtin. For Ywerit . . . tad read mam ; see 
Pal. Note on 88-8 (p. 160), and cp. Bruts, 303. 

162 - B.B.C. 




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Black book of Carmarthen PB 

.B3« '